###### 高光BRDF化简公式总结（转）

：http://graphicrants.blogspot.com/2013/08/specular-brdf-reference.html

### Specular BRDF Reference

While I worked on our new shading model for UE4 I tried many different options for our specular BRDF. Specifically, I tried many different terms for to Cook-Torrance microfacet specular BRDF:
f(l,v)=D(h)F(v,h)G(l,v,h)4(nl)(nv)
Directly comparing different terms requires being able to swap them while still using the same input parameters. I thought it might be a useful reference to put these all in one place using the same symbols and same inputs. I will use the same form as Naty [1], so please look there for background and theory. I'd like to keep this as a living reference so if you have useful additions or suggestions let me know.

First let me define alpha that will be used for all following equations using UE4's roughness:
α=roughness2

## Normal Distribution Function (NDF)

The NDF, also known as the specular distribution, describes the distribution of microfacets for the surface. It is normalized [12] such that:
ΩD(m)(nm)dωi=1
It is interesting to notice all models have 1πα2 for the normalization factor in the isotropic case.

Blinn-Phong [2]:
DBlinn(m)=1πα2(nm)(2α22)
This is not the common form but follows when power=2α22.

Beckmann [3]:
DBeckmann(m)=1πα2(nm)4exp((nm)21α2(nm)2)

GGX (Trowbridge-Reitz) [4]:
DGGX(m)=α2π((nm)2(α21)+1)2

GGX Anisotropic [5]:
DGGXaniso(m)=1παxαy1((xm)2α2x+(ym)2α2y+(nm)2)2

## Geometric Shadowing

The geometric shadowing term describes the shadowing from the microfacets. This means ideally it should depend on roughness and the microfacet distribution.

Implicit [1]:
GImplicit(l,v,h)=(nl)(nv)

Neumann [6]:
GNeumann(l,v,h)=(nl)(nv)max(nl,nv)

Cook-Torrance [11]:
GCookTorrance(l,v,h)=min(1,2(nh)(nv)vh,2(nh)(nl)vh)

Kelemen [7]:
GKelemen(l,v,h)=(nl)(nv)(vh)2

### Smith

The following geometric shadowing models use Smith's method[8] for their respective NDF. Smith breaks G into two components: light and view, and uses the same equation for both:
G(l,v,h)=G1(l)G1(v)
I will define G1 below for each model and skip duplicating the above equation.

Beckmann [4]:
c=nvα1(nv)2
GBeckmann(v)={3.535c+2.181c21+2.276c+2.577c21if c<1.6if c1.6

Blinn-Phong:
The Smith integral has no closed form solution for Blinn-Phong. Walter [4] suggests using the same equation as Beckmann.

GGX [4]:
GGGX(v)=2(nv)(nv)+α2+(1α2)(nv)2
This is not the common form but is a simple refactor by multiplying by nvnv.

Schlick-Beckmann:
Schlick [9] approximated the Smith equation for Beckmann. Naty [1] warns that Schlick approximated the wrong version of Smith, so be sure to compare to the Smith version before using.
k=α2π
GSchlick(v)=nv(nv)(1k)+k

Schlick-GGX:
For UE4, I used the Schlick approximation and matched it to the GGX Smith formulation by remapping k [10]:
k=α2

## Fresnel

The Fresnel function describes the amount of light that reflects from a mirror surface given its index of refraction. Instead of using IOR we instead use the parameter or F0 which is the reflectance at normal incidence.

None:
FNone(v,h)=F0

Schlick [9]:
FSchlick(v,h)=F0+(1F0)(1(vh))5

Cook-Torrance [11]:
η=1+F01F0
c=vh
g=η2+c21
FCookTorrance(v,h)=12(gcg+c)2(1+((g+c)c1(gc)c+1)2)

## Optimize

Be sure to optimize the BRDF shader code as a whole. I choose these forms of the equations to either match the literature or to demonstrate some property. They are not in the optimal form to compute in a pixel shader. For example, grouping Smith GGX with the BRDF denominator we have this:
GGGX(l)GGGX(v)4(nl)(nv)
In optimized HLSL it looks like this:

float a2 = a*a;
float G_V = NoV + sqrt( (NoV - NoV * a2) * NoV + a2 );
float G_L = NoL + sqrt( (NoL - NoL * a2) * NoL + a2 );
return rcp( G_V * G_L );

If you are using this on an older non-scalar GPU you could vectorize it as well.

### References

[1] Hoffman 2013, "Background: Physics and Math of Shading"
[2] Blinn 1977, "Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures"
[3] Beckmann 1963, "The scattering of electromagnetic waves from rough surfaces"
[4] Walter et al. 2007, "Microfacet models for refraction through rough surfaces"
[5] Burley 2012, "Physically-Based Shading at Disney"
[6] Neumann et al. 1999, "Compact metallic reflectance models"
[7] Kelemen 2001, "A microfacet based coupled specular-matte brdf model with importance sampling"
[8] Smith 1967, "Geometrical shadowing of a random rough surface"
[9] Schlick 1994, "An Inexpensive BRDF Model for Physically-Based Rendering"
[10] Karis 2013, "Real Shading in Unreal Engine 4"
[11] Cook and Torrance 1982, "A Reflectance Model for Computer Graphics"
[12] Reed 2013, "How Is the NDF Really Defined?"

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