翻译:测试成熟度模型集成(TMMi)(16)

SG 5 Obtain Commitment to the Test Plan
SG 5 获得测试计划的承诺
Commitments to the test plan are established and maintained.
建立和维护测试计划的承诺
SP 5.1 Review test plan
SP 5.1 评审测试计划
Review the test plan (and possibly other plans) that affect testing to understand test commitments.
评审测试计划(以及其他可能的计划),以了解测试承诺。
Typical work products
1. Test plan review log
Sub-practices
1. Organize reviews with stakeholders to make them understand test commitments
典型工作产品
1. 测试计划评审记录
子实践
1. 组织相关人员的评审,让他们理解测试承诺
SP 5.2 Reconcile work and resource levels
SP 5.2 兼顾工作和资源水平
Review the test plan to reflect available and estimated resources.
Typical work products
1. Revised test approach and corresponding estimation parameters
2. Renegotiated test budgets
3. Revised test schedules
4. Revised product risk list
5. Renegotiated stakeholder agreements
评审测试计划,以反映现有及估计的资源。典型的工作产品1。修订过的测试方法和相应的评估参数2。重新磋商的测试预算3。修订过的测试时间表4。修订过的

产品风险列表5。重新磋商的相关人员协议
Sub-practices
1. Discuss differences between estimates and available resources with stakeholders
2. Reconcile any differences between estimates and available resources
子实践
1. 与相关人员讨论现有和估计的资源之前的差别
2. 调停现有和估计的资源之间的差别
Note that reconciliation is typically accomplished by lowering or deferring technical performance,
negotiating more resources, finding ways to increase productivity, outsourcing, adjusting staff skill mix,
or revising the schedule.
请注意,典型地要完成调停工作,可以通过降低或者延迟技术性能,协商以获得更多资源,设法提高生产力,外包,调整员工的技能组合,或者修改日程。
SP 5.3 Obtain test plan commitments
SP 5.3 获得测试计划承诺
Obtain commitments from relevant stakeholders responsible for performing and supporting test plan
execution.
从负责执行和支持测试计划的相关人员那里获得承诺
Typical work products
1. Documented requests for commitments
2. Documented commitments
典型工作产品
1。记录在案的承诺要求
2。记录在案的承诺
Sub-practices
3. Identify needed support and negotiate commitments with relevant stakeholders
子实践
3. 明确必需的支持,与相关人员就承诺达成协议
Note that the WBS can be used as a checklist for ensuring that commitments are obtained for all
tasks. The plan for stakeholders’ interaction should identify all parties from whom commitments should
be obtained.
请注意,WBS能被用作确保获得所有任务承诺的检查清单。相关人员合作的计划应该明确各自的承诺。
1. Document all organizational commitments, both full and provisional
2. Review internal commitments with senior management as appropriate
3. Review external commitments with senior management as appropriate
1. 记录所有的组织承诺,包括完整的和临时的
2. 适当的时候与高级经理评审内部承诺
3. 适当的时候与高级经理评审外部承诺

Generic Practices by Goals
目标的通用实践
GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process
GG 2 制度化一个管理过程
GP 2.1 Establish an organizational policy
GP 2.1 建立组织政策
Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the test planning process.
建立和维护组织政策,以计划和执行测试计划过程
Elaboration
细节
The test planning policy typically specifies:
? Each project defines a test plan that includes a test approach and the accompanying test effort and
estimates
? The project’s test approach is derived from the test strategy
? Test plans shall be developed using a standard process and template
? Standard tools that will be used when performing test planning
? The requirements are used as a basis for test planning activities
? The testing commitments are negotiated with resource management, business management and
project management
? Involvement of other affected groups in the testing activities is explicitly agreed upon by these
groups
? Management explicitly reviews all testing commitments made to groups external to the
organization
? The test plan is managed and controlled
测试计划政策通常指定:
 每个项目都定义了一套测试计划,其中包括一套测试方法,以及与之相随的测试投入和评估
 项目的测试方法来自于测试策略
 测试计划应使用一个标准的过程和模板来制定
 执行测试计划时应使用标准工具
 需求被用作测试计划活动的基础
 测试承诺通过与资源管理人员,企业管理人员和项目管理人员交涉以达成一致
 在测试活动的其他受影响的组的参与是由这些组明确同意的
 管理层明确评审所有的由项目组外延到组织的测试承诺
 测试计划被管理和控制

GP 2.2 Plan the process
GP 2.2 计划过程
Establish and maintain the plan for performing the test planning process.
建立和维护计划,以执行测试计划过程。
Elaboration
细节
Typically, the plan for performing the test planning process is included in the project plan, which is
described in the CMMI Project Planning process area.
典型的,执行测试计划过程的计划被含在项目计划中,它也在CMMI项目计划过程域中被描述。
GP 2.3 Provide resources
GP 2.3 提供资源
Provide adequate resources for performing the test planning process, developing the test work
products, and providing the services of the process.
提供适当的资源给执行测试计划过程,开发测试工作产品和提供过程的服务。
Elaboration
细节
? A documented and approved assignment exists for testing typically covering issues and
expectation regarding goals and objectives, exit criteria, items and features to be tested and not to
be tested, type of testing to be performed, imposed standards, cost, schedule and resource
constraints.
? Adequate time is provided to test management to perform the test planning activities
? Experienced individuals, who have expertise in the application domain of the test object and those
who have expertise on the development process are available to support the development of the
test plan
? Tools to support the test planning process are available
 存在一份关于测试的记录在案并经批准的任务分配包括,问题列表,关于目标和对象的期望,退出标准,需要测试和不需要测试的条目和功能,将要执行的测试

类型,实行的标准,成本,进度和资源限制等。
 给测试管理提供充足的时间,以执行测试计划活动
 经验丰富的人员,有些是在测试对象的应用领域有专长,有些是在开发过程有专长,以支持测试计划的开发
 提供支持测试计划过程的工具
Examples of tools include the following:
? Project planning and scheduling tools
? Estimation tools
? Risk assessment tools
? Test management tools
? Configuration management
工具包括如下:
 项目计划和调度工具
 评估工具
 风险评估工具
 测试管理工具
 配置管理
GP 2.4 Assign responsibilities
GP 2.4 分配职责
Assign responsibility and authority for performing the test planning process, developing the work
products, and providing the services of the test planning process.
分配职责和权力以执行测试计划过程,开发工作产品,提供测试计划过程的服务等。
Elaboration
细节
A test manager is typically designated to be responsible for negotiating commitments and developing
the test plan. The test manager, directly or by delegation, co-ordinates the project’s test planning
process.
测试经理通常指定为负责合同谈判和开发测试计划,并直接或委托,负责协调该项目的测试计划的过程。
GP 2.5 Train people
GP 2.5 培训人员
Train the people performing or supporting the test planning process as needed.
培训人员,以执行或执行测试计划过程
Elaboration
细节
Test management, and other individuals or groups, involved in test planning, are trained in test
planning and the accompanying procedures and techniques.
参与测试计划的测试管理人员,其他人员或者小组,需要培训测试计划以及相关的过程和技术。
Examples of topics include the following:
? Planning principles
? Test strategy
? Product and project risk assessment process and techniques
? Defining a test approach
? Test plan templates and standards
? Test organization
? Test estimation and test scheduling
? Introduction on test design techniques
? Supporting test planning tools
主题的例子包括以下内容:
?计划原则
?测试策略
?产品和项目的风险评估程序和方法
?定义测试方法
?测试计划的模板和标准
?测试机构
?测试评估和测试调度
?测试设计技术简介
?支持测试计划的工具

GP 2.6 Manage configurations
GP 2.6 配置管理
Place designated work products of the test planning process under appropriate levels of configuration
control.
放置测试计划过程中已规划的工作产品到相应级别的配置控制下
Elaboration
细节
Examples of work products placed under configuration management include the following:
? Work breakdown structure
? Test estimation data
? Product risk assessment data
? Test plan review report
? Test plan
放置在配置管理下工作产品包括以下内容:?工作分解结构?测试评估数据?产品的风险评估数据?试验计划的评审报告?测试计划
GP 2.7 Identify and involve relevant stakeholders
GP 2.7 明确并使相关人员参与
Identify and involve relevant stakeholders of the test planning process as planned.
根据计划明确并使相关人员参与测试计划过程
Elaboration
细节
Select relevant stakeholders from customers, end users, developers, producers, testers, suppliers,
marketers, maintainers, service personnel, and others who may be affected by, or may affect, the
product as well as the test process.
从顾客,终端用户,开发者,生产者,测试者,供应商,市场人员,维护人员,服务人员,其他可能受到,或可能影响他人的人员,还有测试过程的产物中选择

相关人员。
Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following:
? Selecting the product and product components to be tested
? Identifying the risk level and risk types of the product and product components to be
tested by being involved in a product risk assessment
? Providing input to test estimates
? Reviewing and resolving issues on test project risks
? Explicitly committing to test resources needed
? Reviewing and approval of test plan
对相关人员参与活动的例子包括以下内容:?选择产品及产品部件进行测试?通过参与产品风险评估,确定产品及产品组件的风险水平和风险类型?提供测试评

估的输入?评审和解决测试项目风险的问题?明确承诺必要的测试资源
  评审和批准测试计划
GP 2.8 Monitor and control the process
GP 2.8 监控过程
Monitor and Control the test planning process against the plan for performing the process and take
appropriate actions.
根据计划监控测试计划过程,以执行过程并采取适当的行动。
Elaboration
细节
Examples of measures used in monitoring and control the test planning process include the following:
? Number of revisions to the test plan
? Effort spent and actual lead-time compared to the effort planned and planned leadtime
in the test plan
? Number of test items’ risk level changed per revision
? Cost, schedule and effort variance per plan revision
度量监控测试计划过程的例子包括如下:
 修订测试计划的数量
 实际的投入和交货时间与计划的投入和交货时间的比较
 每个修订版中测试项目改变的风险级别的数目
 每个修订版中的成本,进度和投入差异
GP 2.9 Objectively evaluate adherence
GP 2.9 坚持客观评价
Objective evaluate adherence of the test planning process against its process description, standards,
and procedures, and address non-compliances.
基于过程描述,标准,程序和确定的不准从,坚持对测试计划过程的客观评价。
Elaboration
细节
Examples of review and/or audit evaluation adherence topics include the following:
? Compliance to the test strategy
? Compliance to standards (procedures and templates)
? The quality of the test plan
? The defined test approach
? The risk assessment process
? The test estimation process
? The activities for reviewing and making test commitments
评审和/或审计客观评价的例子包括如下:
 遵守测试策略
 遵守标准(程序和模板)
 测试计划的质量
 已定义的测试方法
 风险评估过程
 测试评估过程
 评审和作出测试承诺的活动
GP 2.10 Review status with higher level management
GP 2.10 与高级管理层的评审状况
Review the activities, status and results of the test planning process with higher level management
and resolve issues.
与高级管理层评审测试计划过程的活动,状态和结果,并解决问题
GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process
GG 3 制度化已定义的过程
Only applicable at TMMi level 3
只适用3级TMMi
GP 3.1 Establish a defined process
GP 3.1 建立一个已定义的过程
Establish and maintain a description of a defined test planning process
建立和维护一个已定义测试计划过程的描述
GP 3.2 Collect improvement information
GP 3.2 收集改进信息
Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from
planning and performing the test planning process to support the future use and improvement of the
organization’s processes and process assets.
收集工作产品,度量,度量结果和源自于计划和执行测试计划过程,以支持未来使用和组织过程和过程资产的改进的改进信息
Examples of measures include the following:
? Percentage of test plans established according to procedure and template
? Percentage of test plans that have documented product risk assessment results and
a test approach
? Percentage of test plans formally reviewed and approved by management
? Test planning effort
? Test estimation accuracy
度量的例子包括如下:
 通过程序和模板建立的测试计划的百分比
 记录产品风险评估结果和测试方法的测试计划的百分比
 经管理层正式评审和批准的测试计划的百分比
 测试计划投入
 测试评估准确性

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