# 洛必达法则使用前提

#### 1、 不是不定型，肯定不能用

lim ⁡ x → 3 2 x + 7 4 x + 1 = lim ⁡ x → 3 d d x ( 2 x + 7 ) d d x ( 4 x + 1 ) = lim ⁡ x → 3 2 4 = 1 2 \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to 3}\frac{2x + 7}{4x+1} & = \lim_{x\to 3}\frac{\color{blue}{\frac d {dx}(2x + 7)}}{\color{red}{\frac d {dx}(4x+1)}} = \lim_{x\to 3}\frac{\color{blue} 2}{\color{red} 4} = \frac 1 2 \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → 3 2 x + 7 4 x + 1 = 2 ( 3 ) + 7 4 ( 3 ) + 1 = 13 13 = 1 \lim_{\color{blue}{x\to3}} \frac{2x + 7}{4x+1} = \frac{2\color{blue}{(3)}+7}{4\color{blue}{(3)}+1} = \frac{13}{13} = 1

#### 2、未化成分式，肯定不能用

lim ⁡ x → 0 + ln ⁡ x ⋅ sin ⁡ x = lim ⁡ x → 0 + d d x ( ln ⁡ x ) ⋅ d d x ( sin ⁡ x ) = lim ⁡ x → 0 + 1 x ⋅ cos ⁡ x = lim ⁡ x → 0 + cos ⁡ x x = cos ⁡ 0 0 = 1 0 = ∞ \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to0^+} \ln x\cdot \sin x & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \color{blue}{\frac d {dx}\left(\ln x\right)}\cdot \color{red}{\frac d {dx}\left(\sin x\right)}\\[6pt] & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \color{blue}{\frac 1 x}\cdot \color{red}{\cos x}\\[6pt] & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{\cos x} x\\[6pt] & = \frac{\cos 0} 0\\[6pt] & = \frac 1 0\\[6pt] & = \infty \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → 0 + ln ⁡ x ⋅ sin ⁡ x = lim ⁡ x → 0 + ln ⁡ x csc ⁡ x = lim ⁡ x → 0 + ( ln ⁡ x ) ′ ( csc ⁡ x ) ′ = lim ⁡ x → 0 + 1 x − cot ⁡ x ⋅ csc ⁡ x = lim ⁡ x → 0 + 1 x − 1 tan ⁡ x ⋅ csc ⁡ x ( csc ⁡ x → + ∞ ) = lim ⁡ x → 0 + − tan ⁡ x x ⋅ 1 csc ⁡ x = 0 \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to0^+} \ln x\cdot \sin x & = \lim_{x\to0^+}\frac{\ln x}{\color{blue}\csc x}\\ & = \lim_{x\to0^+}\frac{(\ln x)\prime}{\color{blue}(\csc x)^\prime}\\ & = \lim_{x\to0^+}\frac{{1\over x}}{\color{blue}-\cot x \cdot\csc x}\\ & = \lim_{x\to0^+}\frac{{1\over x}}{\color{blue}-{1\over \tan x} \cdot\csc x}\quad \color{purple}{(\csc x\rightarrow +\infty)}\\ & = \lim_{x\to0^+}-\frac{\color{blue}\tan x}{x}\cdot\frac{1}{\color{purple}{\csc x} }\\ & = 0 \end{aligned}

#### 3、不降反升次，越洛越桑心

lim ⁡ x → 0 + ln ⁡ x 1 / x = lim ⁡ x → 0 + d d x ( ln ⁡ x ) d d x ( 1 / x ) 洛 一 次 = lim ⁡ x → 0 + 1 / x − 1 / x 2 = ∞ − ∞ = lim ⁡ x → 0 + d d x ( 1 / x ) d d x ( − 1 / x 2 ) 洛 二 次 = lim ⁡ x → 0 + − 1 / x 2 2 / x 3 = − ∞ ∞ = lim ⁡ x → 0 + d d x ( − 1 / x 2 ) d d x ( 2 / x 3 ) 洛 三 次 = lim ⁡ x → 0 + 2 / x 3 − 6 / x 4 = ∞ − ∞ \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{\ln x}{1/x} & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{\color{blue}{\frac d {dx}\left(\ln x\right)}}{\color{red}{\frac d {dx}\left(1/x\right)}} && {洛一次}\\ & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{1/x}{-1/x^2} = \frac \infty {-\infty}\\[6pt] & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{\color{blue}{\frac d {dx}\left(1/x\right)}}{\color{red}{\frac d {dx}\left(-1/x^2\right)}} && {洛二次}\\ & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{-1/x^2}{2/x^3} = \frac {-\infty} \infty\\[6pt] & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{\color{blue}{\frac d {dx}\left(-1/x^2\right)}}{\color{red}{\frac d {dx}\left(2/x^3\right)}} && {洛三次}\\ & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{2/x^3}{-6/x^4} = \frac \infty {-\infty} \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → 0 + ln ⁡ x 1 / x = lim ⁡ x → 0 + d d x ( ln ⁡ x ) d d x ( 1 / x ) = lim ⁡ x → 0 + 1 / x − 1 / x 2 \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{\ln x}{1/x} & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{\color{blue}{\frac d {dx}\left(\ln x\right)}}{\color{red}{\frac d {dx}\left(1/x\right)}} = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{1/x}{-1/x^2} \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → 0 + 1 / x − 1 / x 2 = lim ⁡ x → 0 + 1 x ⋅ ( x 2 − 1 ) = lim ⁡ x → 0 + − x 2 x = lim ⁡ x → 0 + − x = 0 \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac{1/x}{-1/x^2} & = \lim_{x\to0^+} \frac 1 x\cdot \left(\frac{x^2}{-1}\right) = \lim_{x\to0^+} -\frac{x^2} x = \lim_{x\to0^+} -x = 0 \end{aligned}

#### 4、永无宁日的Shi循环

lim ⁡ x → ∞ 4 x 2 + 3 x + 3 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ ( 4 x 2 + 3 ) 1 / 2 x + 3 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ d d x ( 4 x 2 + 3 ) 1 / 2 d d x ( x + 3 ) 洛 必 达 法 则 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ 1 2 ( 4 x 2 + 3 ) − 1 / 2 ⋅ 8 x 1 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ 4 x ( 4 x 2 + 3 ) 1 / 2 化 简 整 理 = ∞ ∞ \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\sqrt{4x^2+3}}{x+3} & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{(4x^2+3)^{1/2}}{x+3} && \\ & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\color{blue}{\frac d {dx}(4x^2+3)^{1/2}}}{\color{red}{\frac d {dx}(x+3)}} &&{洛必达法则}\\[6pt] & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\frac 1 2(4x^2+3)^{-1/2}\cdot 8x}{1}\\[6pt] & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{4x}{(4x^2+3)^{1/2}} &&{化简整理}\\[6pt] & = \frac \infty \infty \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ 4 x ( 4 x 2 + 3 ) 1 / 2 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ d d x ( 4 x ) d d x ( 4 x 2 + 3 ) 1 / 2 洛 必 达 法 则 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ 4 1 2 ( 4 x 2 + 3 ) − 1 / 2 ⋅ 8 x = lim ⁡ x → ∞ ( 4 x 2 + 3 ) 1 / 2 x 化 简 整 理 = ∞ ∞ \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{4x}{(4x^2+3)^{1/2}} & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\color{blue}{\frac d {dx}(4x)}}{\color{red}{\frac d {dx}(4x^2+3)^{1/2}}} && {洛必达法则}\\[6pt] & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{4}{\frac 1 2(4x^2+3)^{-1/2}\cdot 8x}\\[6pt] & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{(4x^2+3)^{1/2}}{x} &&{化简整理}\\[6pt] & = \frac \infty \infty \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ 4 x 2 + 3 x + 3 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ x 2 ( 4 + 3 x 2 ) x + 3 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ x 2 ⋅ 4 + 3 x 2 x + 3 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∣ x ∣ ⋅ 4 + 3 x 2 x + 3 \begin{aligned}% \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\sqrt{4x^2+3}}{x+3} & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\sqrt{x^2\left(4+\frac 3 {x^2}\right)}}{x+3}= \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\sqrt{x^2}\cdot\sqrt{4+\frac 3 {x^2}}}{x+3} = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{|x|\cdot\sqrt{4+\frac 3 {x^2}}}{x+3} \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ x ⋅ 4 + 3 x 2 x + 3 = lim ⁡ x → ∞ x ⋅ 4 + 3 x 2 x ( 1 + 3 x ) = lim ⁡ x → ∞ 4 + 3 x 2 1 + 3 x \displaystyle\lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{x\cdot\sqrt{4+\frac 3 {x^2}}}{x+3} = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{x\cdot\sqrt{4+\frac 3 {x^2}}}{x\left(1+\frac 3 x\right)} = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\sqrt{4+\frac 3 {x^2}}}{1+\frac 3 x}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ 4 + 3 x 2 1 + 3 x = 4 + 0 1 + 0 = 4 1 = 2 \displaystyle\lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\sqrt{4+\frac 3 {x^2}}}{1+\frac 3 x} = \frac{\sqrt{4+0}}{1+0} = \frac{\sqrt 4} 1 = 2

#### 5、标准不定型中混入看似可忽略的项，也有可能出现Shi循环

lim ⁡ x → ∞ e x − e − x e x + e − x = ∞ − 0 ∞ + 0 = ∞ ∞ \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{e^x - e^{-x}}{e^x + e^{-x}} & = \frac{\infty - 0}{\infty + 0} = \frac \infty \infty \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ e x − e − x e x + e − x = lim ⁡ x → ∞ d d x ( e x − e − x ) d d x ( e x + e − x ) = lim ⁡ x → ∞ e x + e − x e x − e − x = ∞ ∞ \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{e^x - e^{-x}}{e^x + e^{-x}} & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\color{blue}{\frac d {dx}\left(e^x - e^{-x}\right)}}{\color{red}{\frac d {dx}\left(e^x + e^{-x}\right)}} = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{e^x + e^{-x}}{e^x - e^{-x}} = \frac \infty \infty \end{aligned}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ e x − e − x e x + e − x = lim ⁡ x → ∞ ( e x − e − x ) ( e x + e − x ) ⋅ e − x e − x = lim ⁡ x → ∞ 1 − e − 2 x 1 + e − 2 x = 1 − 0 1 + 0 = 1 \begin{aligned} \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{e^x - e^{-x}}{e^x + e^{-x}} & = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{\left(e^x - e^{-x}\right)}{\left(e^x + e^{-x}\right)} \cdot \frac{e^{-x}}{e^{-x}} = \lim_{x\to\infty} \frac{1 - e^{-2x}}{1 + e^{-2x}} = \frac{1 - 0}{1+ 0} = 1 \end{aligned}

#### 6、小心周期函数

lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 x sin ⁡ t d t x = sin ⁡ t = ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty} \frac{\int_0^{x}\sin tdt}{x}=\sin t =????????

− 1 ≤ ∫ 0 x sin ⁡ t d t ≤ 1 -1\le\int_0^{x}\sin tdt\le1

lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 x sin ⁡ t d t x = 0 \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty} \frac{\int_0^{x}\sin tdt}{x}=0

##### 还是这个周期函数，没完没了

lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 x ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x = ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ = ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty} \frac{\int_0^{x}|\sin t|dt}{x}=|\sin t| =????????

• I. 先考察 ∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t \int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt

∫ 0 π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t = 2 \int_0^{\pi}|\sin t|dt=2

∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t = 2 n (1) \int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt=2n \tag{1}

∫ n π ( n + 1 ) π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t = 2 \int_{n\pi}^{(n+1)\pi}|\sin t|dt=2

∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t = ∑ k = 1 n ∫ ( k − 1 ) π k π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t = ∑ k = 1 n 1 = 2 n \int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt=\sum_{k=1}^{n}\int_{(k-1)\pi}^{k\pi}|\sin t|dt=\sum_{k=1}^{n} 1=2n

• II. 再证明一个有用的结论

n π ≤ x ≤ ( n + 1 ) π (2) n\pi\le x \le (n+1)\pi \tag{2}

∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t ( n + 1 ) π ≤ ∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x ≤ ∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t n π \frac{\int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt}{(n+1)\pi} \le \frac{\int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt}{x}\le \frac{\int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt}{n\pi}

2 n ( n + 1 ) π ≤ ∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x ≤ 2 n n π \frac{2n}{(n+1)\pi} \le \frac{\int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt}{x}\le \frac{2n}{n\pi}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ 2 n ( n + 1 ) π = lim ⁡ x → ∞ 2 n n π = 2 π \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{2n}{(n+1)\pi}=\lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{2n}{n\pi}=\frac{2}{\pi}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x ≤ lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x ≤ lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 ( n + 1 ) π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt }{x} \le \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt}{x} \le \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{(n+1)\pi}|\sin t|dt}{x}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x = 2 π (3) \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{{\color{Red} n\pi} }|\sin t|dt}{x}=\frac{2}{\pi} \tag{3}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 ( n + 1 ) π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x = 2 π (4) \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{{\color{Red} (n+1)\pi} }|\sin t|dt}{x}=\frac{2}{\pi} \tag{4}

• III. 最后收尾

∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t ≤ ∫ 0 x ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t ≤ ∫ 0 ( n + 1 ) π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t \int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt \le \int_0^{x}|\sin t|dt \le \int_0^{(n+1)\pi}|\sin t|dt

lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 n π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x ≤ lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 x ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x ≤ lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 ( n + 1 ) π ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{n\pi}|\sin t|dt }{x} \le \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{{\color{Red} x} }|\sin t|dt}{x} \le \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{(n+1)\pi}|\sin t|dt}{x}

2 π ≤ lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 x ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x ≤ 2 π \frac{2}{\pi} \le \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{{\color{Red} x} }|\sin t|dt}{x} \le \frac{2}{\pi}

lim ⁡ x → ∞ ∫ 0 x ∣ sin ⁡ t ∣ d t x = 2 π \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{\int_0^{{\color{Red} x} }|\sin t|dt}{x} = \frac{2}{\pi}

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