霍夫变换hough、houghpeaks、houghlines

霍夫变换在图像处理里常用来在黑白图像里检测直线,matlab里有相应的几个函数,使用方便,这里把matlab帮助里介绍的例子演示一下。
    matlab里霍夫变换主要包含一下三个函数:
hough:实现霍夫变换,得到霍夫变换矩阵,用法如下
[H, theta, rho] = hough(BW)
[H, theta, rho] = hough(BW, ParameterName,ParameterValue)
houghpeaks:在霍夫变换矩阵里找极值点
peaks = houghpeaks(H, numpeaks)
peaks = houghpeaks(..., param1, val1,param2, val2)
houghlines:从霍夫变换矩阵中提取线段
lines = houghlines(BW, theta, rho,peaks)
lines = houghlines(..., param1, val1,param2, val2)
    下面以一个例子来看看霍夫变换的效果,代码如下
% 测试霍夫变换
clc
clear
close all 
% 读取图像
I  = imread('circuit.tif');
rotI = imrotate(I,33,'crop'); % 旋转33度,保持原图片大小
fig1 = imshow(rotI);
% 提取边
BW = edge(rotI,'canny');
figure, imshow(BW); 
% 霍夫变换
[H,theta,rho] = hough(BW); % 计算二值图像的标准霍夫变换,H为霍夫变换矩阵,theta,rho为计算霍夫变换的角度和半径值
figure, imshow(imadjust(mat2gray(H)),[],'XData',theta,'YData',rho,...
    'InitialMagnification','fit');
xlabel('\theta (degrees)'), ylabel('\rho');
axis on, axis normal, hold on;
colormap(hot) 
% 显示霍夫变换矩阵中的极值点
P = houghpeaks(H,5,'threshold',ceil(0.3*max(H(:)))); % 从霍夫变换矩阵H中提取5个极值点
x = theta(P(:,2));
y = rho(P(:,1));
plot(x,y,'s','color','black'); 
% 找原图中的线
lines = houghlines(BW,theta,rho,P,'FillGap',5,'MinLength',7);
figure, imshow(rotI), hold on
max_len = 0;
for k = 1:length(lines)
    % 绘制各条线
    xy = [lines(k).point1; lines(k).point2];
    plot(xy(:,1),xy(:,2),'LineWidth',2,'Color','green');   
    % 绘制线的起点(黄色)、终点(红色)
    plot(xy(1,1),xy(1,2),'x','LineWidth',2,'Color','yellow');
    plot(xy(2,1),xy(2,2),'x','LineWidth',2,'Color','red');   
    % 计算线的长度,找最长线段
    len = norm(lines(k).point1 - lines(k).point2);
    if ( len > max_len)
        max_len = len;
        xy_long = xy;
    end
end
% 以红色线高亮显示最长的线
plot(xy_long(:,1),xy_long(:,2),'LineWidth',2,'Color','red');
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