ROS入门_1.14 编写及测试简单的消息发布器和订阅器 (C++)

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1. 编写发布器节点

"节点(Node)" 是ROS中指代连接到ROS网络的可执行文件的术语。接下来,我们将会创建一个发布器节点("talker"),它将不断的在ROS网络中广播消息。

转移到之前教程在catkin工作空间所创建的beginner_tutorials package路径下:

cd ~/catkin_ws/src/beginner_tutorials

源代码

在beginner_tutorials package路径下创建src目录:

mkdir -p ~/catkin_ws/src/beginner_tutorials/src

这个目录将会存储beginner_tutorials package的所有源代码.

在beginner_tutorials package里创建src/talker.cpp文件,并粘贴如下代码:

https://raw.github.com/ros/ros_tutorials/groovy-devel/roscpp_tutorials/talker/talker.cpp

#include "ros/ros.h"
#include "std_msgs/String.h"

#include <sstream>

/**
 * This tutorial demonstrates simple sending of messages over the ROS system.
 */
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
  /**
   * The ros::init() function needs to see argc and argv so that it can perform
   * any ROS arguments and name remapping that were provided at the command line. For programmatic
   * remappings you can use a different version of init() which takes remappings
   * directly, but for most command-line programs, passing argc and argv is the easiest
   * way to do it.  The third argument to init() is the name of the node.
   *
   * You must call one of the versions of ros::init() before using any other
   * part of the ROS system.
   */
  ros::init(argc, argv, "talker");

  /**
   * NodeHandle is the main access point to communications with the ROS system.
   * The first NodeHandle constructed will fully initialize this node, and the last
   * NodeHandle destructed will close down the node.
   */
  ros::NodeHandle n;

  /**
   * The advertise() function is how you tell ROS that you want to
   * publish on a given topic name. This invokes a call to the ROS
   * master node, which keeps a registry of who is publishing and who
   * is subscribing. After this advertise() call is made, the master
   * node will notify anyone who is trying to subscribe to this topic name,
   * and they will in turn negotiate a peer-to-peer connection with this
   * node.  advertise() returns a Publisher object which allows you to
   * publish messages on that topic through a call to publish().  Once
   * all copies of the returned Publisher object are destroyed, the topic
   * will be automatically unadvertised.
   *
   * The second parameter to advertise() is the size of the message queue
   * used for publishing messages.  If messages are published more quickly
   * than we can send them, the number here specifies how many messages to
   * buffer up before throwing some away.
   */
  ros::Publisher chatter_pub = n.advertise<std_msgs::String>("chatter", 1000);

  ros::Rate loop_rate(10);

  /**
   * A count of how many messages we have sent. This is used to create
   * a unique string for each message.
   */
  int count = 0;
  while (ros::ok())
  {
    /**
     * This is a message object. You stuff it with data, and then publish it.
     */
    std_msgs::String msg;

    std::stringstream ss;
    ss << "hello world " << count;
    msg.data = ss.str();

    ROS_INFO("%s", msg.data.c_str());

    /**
     * The publish() function is how you send messages. The parameter
     * is the message object. The type of this object must agree with the type
     * given as a template parameter to the advertise<>() call, as was done
     * in the constructor above.
     */
    chatter_pub.publish(msg);

    ros::spinOnce();

    loop_rate.sleep();
    ++count;
  }


  return 0;
}

代码解释

现在,我们来分段解释代码.

切换行号显示
  27 #include "ros/ros.h"
  28 

ros/ros.h是一个实用的头文件,它引用了ROS系统中大部分常用的头文件,使用它会使得编程很简便。

切换行号显示
  28 #include "std_msgs/String.h"
  29 

这引用了std_msgs/String 消息, 它存放在std_msgs package里,是由String.msg文件自动生成的头文件。需要更详细的消息定义,参考msg页面.

切换行号显示
  47   ros::init(argc, argv, "talker");

初始化ROS。它允许ROS通过命令行进行名称重映射——目前,这不是重点。同样,我们也在这里指定我们节点的名称——必须唯一。

这里的名称必须是一个base name,不能包含/

切换行号显示
  54   ros::NodeHandle n;

为这个进程的节点创建一个句柄。第一个创建的NodeHandle会为节点进行初始化,最后一个销毁的会清理节点使用的所有资源。

切换行号显示
  73   ros::Publisher chatter_pub = n.advertise<std_msgs::String>("chatter", 1000);

告诉master我们将要在chatter topic上发布一个std_msgs/String的消息。这样master就会告诉所有订阅了chatter topic的节点,将要有数据发布。第二个参数是发布序列的大小。在这样的情况下,如果我们发布的消息太快,缓冲区中的消息在大于1000个的时候就会开始丢弃先前发布的消息。

NodeHandle::advertise() 返回一个 ros::Publisher对象,它有两个作用: 1) 它有一个publish()成员函数可以让你在topic上发布消息; 2) 如果消息类型不对,它会拒绝发布。

切换行号显示
  75   ros::Rate loop_rate(10);

ros::Rate对象可以允许你指定自循环的频率。它会追踪记录自上一次调用Rate::sleep()后时间的流逝,并休眠直到一个频率周期的时间。

在这个例子中,我们让它以10hz的频率运行。

切换行号显示
  81   int count = 0;
  82   while (ros::ok())
  83   {

roscpp会默认安装一个SIGINT句柄,它负责处理Ctrl-C键盘操作——使得ros::ok()返回FALSE。

ros::ok()返回false,如果下列条件之一发生:

  • SIGINT接收到(Ctrl-C)
  • 被另一同名节点踢出ROS网络
  • ros::shutdown()被程序的另一部分调用

  • 所有的ros::NodeHandles都已经被销毁

一旦ros::ok()返回false, 所有的ROS调用都会失效。

切换行号显示
  87     std_msgs::String msg;
  88 
  89     std::stringstream ss;
  90     ss << "hello world " << count;
  91     msg.data = ss.str();

我们使用一个由msg file文件产生的‘消息自适应’类在ROS网络中广播消息。现在我们使用标准的String消息,它只有一个数据成员"data"。当然你也可以发布更复杂的消息类型。

切换行号显示
 101     chatter_pub.publish(msg);

现在我们已经向所有连接到chatter topic的节点发送了消息。

切换行号显示
  93     ROS_INFO("%s", msg.data.c_str());

ROS_INFO和类似的函数用来替代printf/cout. 参考rosconsole documentation以获得更详细的信息。

切换行号显示
 103     ros::spinOnce();

在这个例子中并不是一定要调用ros::spinOnce(),因为我们不接受回调。然而,如果你想拓展这个程序,却又没有在这调用ros::spinOnce(),你的回调函数就永远也不会被调用。所以,在这里最好还是加上这一语句。

切换行号显示
 105     loop_rate.sleep();

这条语句是调用ros::Rate对象来休眠一段时间以使得发布频率为10hz。

对上边的内容进行一下总结:

  • 初始化ROS系统
  • 在ROS网络内广播我们将要在chatter topic上发布std_msgs/String消息

  • 以每秒10次的频率在chatter上发布消息

接下来我们要编写一个节点来接收消息。

2. 编写订阅器节点

源代码

beginner_tutorials package目录下创建src/listener.cpp文件,并粘贴如下代码:

https://raw.github.com/ros/ros_tutorials/groovy-devel/roscpp_tutorials/listener/listener.cpp

切换行号显示
#include "ros/ros.h"
#include "std_msgs/String.h"

/**
 * This tutorial demonstrates simple receipt of messages over the ROS system.
 */
void chatterCallback(const std_msgs::String::ConstPtr& msg)
{
  ROS_INFO("I heard: [%s]", msg->data.c_str());
}

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
  /**
   * The ros::init() function needs to see argc and argv so that it can perform
   * any ROS arguments and name remapping that were provided at the command line. For programmatic
   * remappings you can use a different version of init() which takes remappings
   * directly, but for most command-line programs, passing argc and argv is the easiest
   * way to do it.  The third argument to init() is the name of the node.
   *
   * You must call one of the versions of ros::init() before using any other
   * part of the ROS system.
   */
  ros::init(argc, argv, "listener");

  /**
   * NodeHandle is the main access point to communications with the ROS system.
   * The first NodeHandle constructed will fully initialize this node, and the last
   * NodeHandle destructed will close down the node.
   */
  ros::NodeHandle n;

  /**
   * The subscribe() call is how you tell ROS that you want to receive messages
   * on a given topic.  This invokes a call to the ROS
   * master node, which keeps a registry of who is publishing and who
   * is subscribing.  Messages are passed to a callback function, here
   * called chatterCallback.  subscribe() returns a Subscriber object that you
   * must hold on to until you want to unsubscribe.  When all copies of the Subscriber
   * object go out of scope, this callback will automatically be unsubscribed from
   * this topic.
   *
   * The second parameter to the subscribe() function is the size of the message
   * queue.  If messages are arriving faster than they are being processed, this
   * is the number of messages that will be buffered up before beginning to throw
   * away the oldest ones.
   */
  ros::Subscriber sub = n.subscribe("chatter", 1000, chatterCallback);

  /**
   * ros::spin() will enter a loop, pumping callbacks.  With this version, all
   * callbacks will be called from within this thread (the main one).  ros::spin()
   * will exit when Ctrl-C is pressed, or the node is shutdown by the master.
   */
  ros::spin();

  return 0;
}

代码解释

下面我们将逐条解释代码,当然,之前解释过的代码就不再赘述了。

切换行号显示
  34 void chatterCallback(const std_msgs::String::ConstPtr& msg)
  35 {
  36   ROS_INFO("I heard: [%s]", msg->data.c_str());
  37 }

这是一个回调函数,当消息到达chatter topic的时候就会被调用。消息是以 boost shared_ptr指针的形式传输,这就意味着你可以存储它而又不需要复制数据

切换行号显示
  75   ros::Subscriber sub = n.subscribe("chatter", 1000, chatterCallback);

告诉master我们要订阅chatter topic上的消息。当有消息到达topic时,ROS就会调用chatterCallback()函数。第二个参数是队列大小,以防我们处理消息的速度不够快,在缓存了1000个消息后,再有新的消息到来就将开始丢弃先前接收的消息。

NodeHandle::subscribe()返回ros::Subscriber对象,你必须让它处于活动状态直到你不再想订阅该消息。当这个对象销毁时,它将自动退订 上的消息。

有各种不同的NodeHandle::subscribe()函数,允许你指定类的成员函数,甚至是Boost.Function对象可以调用的任何数据类型。roscpp overview 提供了更为详尽的信息。

切换行号显示
  82   ros::spin();

ros::spin()进入自循环,可以尽可能快的调用消息回调函数。如果没有消息到达,它不会占用很多CPU,所以不用担心。一旦ros::ok()返回FALSE,ros::spin()就会立刻跳出自循环。这有可能是ros::shutdown()被调用,或者是用户按下了Ctrl-C,使得master告诉节点要shutdown。也有可能是节点被人为的关闭。

还有其他的方法进行回调,但在这里我们不涉及。想要了解,可以参考roscpp_tutorials package里的一些demo应用。需要更为详尽的信息,参考roscpp overview

下边,我们来总结一下:

  • 初始化ROS系统
  • 订阅chatter topic

  • 进入自循环,等待消息的到达
  • 当消息到达,调用chatterCallback()函数

3. 编译节点

之前教程中使用catkin_create_pkg创建了package.xml 和 CMakeLists.txt 文件。

生成的CMakeLists.txt看起来应该是这样(在Creating Msgs and Srvs教程中的修改和未被使用的注释和例子都被移除了):

https://raw.github.com/ros/catkin_tutorials/master/create_package_modified/catkin_ws/src/beginner_tutorials/CMakeLists.txt

切换行号显示
   1 cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8.3)
   2 project(beginner_tutorials)
   3 
   4 ## Find catkin and any catkin packages
   5 find_package(catkin REQUIRED COMPONENTS roscpp rospy std_msgs genmsg)
   6 
   7 ## Declare ROS messages and services
   8 add_message_files(DIRECTORY msg FILES Num.msg)
   9 add_service_files(DIRECTORY srv FILES AddTwoInts.srv)
  10 
  11 ## Generate added messages and services
  12 generate_messages(DEPENDENCIES std_msgs)
  13 
  14 ## Declare a catkin package
  15 catkin_package()

CMakeLists.txt文件末尾加入几条语句:

include_directories(include ${catkin_INCLUDE_DIRS})

add_executable(talker src/talker.cpp)
target_link_libraries(talker ${catkin_LIBRARIES})

add_executable(listener src/listener.cpp)
target_link_libraries(listener ${catkin_LIBRARIES})

结果,CMakeLists.txt文件看起来像这样:

https://raw.github.com/ros/catkin_tutorials/master/create_package_pubsub/catkin_ws/src/beginner_tutorials/CMakeLists.txt

切换行号显示
   1 cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8.3)
   2 project(beginner_tutorials)
   3 
   4 ## Find catkin and any catkin packages
   5 find_package(catkin REQUIRED COMPONENTS roscpp rospy std_msgs genmsg)
   6 
   7 ## Declare ROS messages and services
   8 add_message_files(FILES Num.msg)
   9 add_service_files(FILES AddTwoInts.srv)
  10 
  11 ## Generate added messages and services
  12 generate_messages(DEPENDENCIES std_msgs)
  13 
  14 ## Declare a catkin package
  15 catkin_package()
  16 
  17 ## Build talker and listener
  18 include_directories(include ${catkin_INCLUDE_DIRS})
  19 
  20 add_executable(talker src/talker.cpp)
  21 target_link_libraries(talker ${catkin_LIBRARIES})
  22 add_dependencies(talker beginner_tutorials_generate_messages_cpp)
  23 
  24 add_executable(listener src/listener.cpp)
  25 target_link_libraries(listener ${catkin_LIBRARIES})
  26 add_dependencies(listener beginner_tutorials_generate_messages_cpp)

这会生成两个可执行文件, talker 和 listener, 默认存储到devel space目录,具体是在~/catkin_ws/devel/lib/<package name>中.

现在要为可执行文件添加对生成的消息文件的依赖:

add_dependencies(talker beginner_tutorials_generate_messages_cpp)

这样就可以确保自定义消息的头文件在被使用之前已经被生成。因为catkin把所有的package并行的编译,所以如果你要使用其他catkin工作空间中其他package的消息,你同样也需要添加对他们各自生成的消息文件的依赖。当然,如果在*Groovy*版本下,你可以使用下边的这个变量来添加对所有必须的文件依赖:

add_dependencies(talker ${catkin_EXPORTED_TARGETS})

你可以直接调用可执行文件,也可以使用rosrun来调用他们。他们不会被安装到'<prefix>/bin'路径下,因为那样会改变系统的PATH环境变量。如果你确定要将可执行文件安装到该路径下,你需要设置安装目标,请参考catkin/CMakeLists.txt

需要关于CMakeLists.txt更详细的信息,请参考catkin/CMakeLists.txt

现在运行 catkin_make:

# In your catkin workspace
$ catkin_make  

注意:如果你是添加了新的package,你需要通过--force-cmake选项告诉catkin进行强制编译。参考catkin/Tutorials/using_a_workspace#With_catkin_make.

既然已经编写好了发布器和订阅器,下面让我们来测试消息发布器和订阅器.

4. 测试消息发布器和订阅器

4.1 启动发布器

确保roscore可用,并运行:

$ roscore

catkin specific 如果使用catkin,确保你在调用catkin_make后,在运行你自己的程序前,已经source了catkin工作空间下的setup.sh文件:

# In your catkin workspace
$ cd ~/catkin_ws
$ source ./devel/setup.bash

In the last tutorial we made a publisher called "talker". Let's run it:

$ rosrun beginner_tutorials talker      (C++)
$ rosrun beginner_tutorials talker.py   (Python) 

你将看到如下的输出信息:

  • [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931831.774057] hello world 1314931831.77
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931832.775497] hello world 1314931832.77
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931833.778937] hello world 1314931833.78
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931834.782059] hello world 1314931834.78
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931835.784853] hello world 1314931835.78
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931836.788106] hello world 1314931836.79

发布器节点已经启动运行。现在需要一个订阅器节点来接受发布的消息。

4.2 启动订阅器

上一教程,我们编写了一个名为"listener"的订阅器节点。现在运行它:(打开一个新的终端后仍要记得source catkin工作空间下的setup.sh文件

$ rosrun beginner_tutorials listener     (C++)
$ rosrun beginner_tutorials listener.py  (Python) 

你将会看到如下的输出信息:

  • [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931969.258941] /listener_17657_1314931968795I heard hello world 1314931969.26
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931970.262246] /listener_17657_1314931968795I heard hello world 1314931970.26
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931971.266348] /listener_17657_1314931968795I heard hello world 1314931971.26
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931972.270429] /listener_17657_1314931968795I heard hello world 1314931972.27
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931973.274382] /listener_17657_1314931968795I heard hello world 1314931973.27
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931974.277694] /listener_17657_1314931968795I heard hello world 1314931974.28
    [INFO] [WallTime: 1314931975.283708] /listener_17657_1314931968795I heard hello world 1314931975.28

你已经测试完了发布器和订阅器,下面我们来编写一个服务和客户端(python) (c++).

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