PMP新考纲 敏捷题目 (四)

As part of the Estimate Activity Durations process, the project manager facilitates a sprint planning meeting with the product owner and Scrum team. The project manager breaks down the user stories into low-level tasks, estimates the time required in hours, and determines the sprint backlog based on the team's capacity. Despite meticulous planning, the sprint fails. What might the project manager have done differently?
A: 在确定冲刺待办事项列表之前,要求团队为产品待办事项列表设优先级
Asked the team to prioritize the product backlog before determining the sprint backlog
B: 将确定的低级任务分配给项目进度计划中的特定人员
Assigned the identified low-level tasks to specific individuals in the project schedule
C: 授权团队确定他们在冲刺期间可以完成多少用户故事
Empowered the team to determine how many user stories they can complete during the sprint
D: 在估算用户故事和任务的大小时,使用故事点而不是小时
Used story points instead of hours while estimating the size of the user stories and tasks
正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P153 章节:术语表 自组织团队:它是一种跨职能团队,其中为实现团队目标团队成员根据需要轮换着发挥领导作用。 自组织团队的核 心就是做什么事情,团队成员说了算。

A project manager is developing the project schedule and wants to empower the team with more decision making authority than past projects. He creates a Gantt chart that displays activities down to the work package level of the WBS, which are assigned to the team rather than individuals. He then records the work packages in the backlog of a Kanban board. How might the project manager use inspirational motivation to empower the team through idealized attributes and behaviors?

A: 采取自由放任的领导风格
Adopt a Laissez-faire leadership style

B: 融入仆人型领导者的要素
Incorporate the elements of a servant leader

C: 利用例外管理
Utilize management by exception

D: 使用变革型领导风格
Use a transformational leadership style
正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P73 章节:6.1.2 变革就绪情况: • 积极明确的管理层支持; • 变革管理实践,包括沟通和引导; • 逐个项目应用敏捷实践 • 向团队增量地引入敏捷实践;以及 • 通过采取适用的敏捷技术和实践示范引导。 从题干看出,这明显是从瀑布型向敏捷型的变革,需要变革型领导风格。

Your agile project needs specialists that are not available locally. You find the needed resources across the globe, but due to various constraints, cannot colocate them for the duration of the project. You decide that the only way to go ahead with the project is by setting up the team in a virtual environment. The kick-off meeting is in a few weeks from now. What is your best course of action to have the team attend the kick-off?

A: 让团队成员在会议期间连接到视频会议
Have the team members connect to the video conference during the meeting

B: 可能的话,带团队成员亲自参加启动会议
If possible, bring the team members to attend the kick-off meeting in person

C: 将会议录下来并将录像发送给团队成员
Record the kick-off meeting on a video and send the recording to the team

D: 什么都不做,因为敏捷团队有权作出自己的决策
Do nothing since agile teams are empowered to make their own decisions

正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P9 章节:2.2 敏捷原则第6条: 无论对开发团队还是团 队内部,信息传达最有效的方法都是面对面的交谈。 如果可能的话,还是要当面开启动会,以获取相关方的承诺。

A company has always utilized a predictive approach to project management, but now the project management office wants to incorporate some agile best practices to generate earlier revenue realization. The project manager is about to begin planning for the new project and is concerned that the project team is not equipped to work in a hybrid environment. What is the project manager's best course of action?

A: 授权团队自我组织和学习敏捷最佳实践
Empower the team to self-organize and study agile best practices

B: 向项目管理办公室(PMO)申请培训
Request the training from the project management office (PMO

C: 将团队敏捷技能不足的风险添加到风险登记册
Add the risk of the team's inadequate agile skills to the risk register

D: 审查敏捷最佳实践的经验教训知识库
Check the lessons learned repository for agile best practices
正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P82 章节:6.6.3 敏捷PMO的服务:通过培训和指导发展人才 过渡期间应该安排专业的敏捷培训。

95、 项目经理安排一次会议,让Scrum项目团队进行反思和调整。与会者在这次会议上最可能做什么?
A project manager schedules a meeting for the scrum project team to reflect and adapt. What will the participants be most likely doing at this meeting?

A: 向客户演示产品增量
Demonstrating the product increment to the customer

B: 为下次冲刺选择用户故事
Selecting user stories for the next sprint

C: 讨论正在进行的工作和阻碍进展的障碍
Discussing the on-going work and impediments to progress

D: 寻找对团队过程的任何改进
Looking for any improvements to the team's process
正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P50 章节:5.2.1 回顾总结会: 回顾是最重要的一个实践,原因是它能让团队学习、改进和调整其 过程。 回顾会三件事:总结经验 过程改进 提出计划

As part of its transformation to agile, an organization selects a pilot team for a project to develop a software tool. An agile coach is assigned to the team to guide them throughout their transition. For the first few iterations, the coach works with the project manager and team to coach them on agile practices and assign tasks to the team members. What is agile coach's best course of action to determine if the team has acquired the required skills to perform the upcoming iterations without coaching?

A: 参加每日站会
Attend daily standup meetings

B: 进行产品演示
Conduct product demonstrations

C: 举行迭代回顾
Hold iteration retrospectives

D: 开展团队建设活动
Carry out team building activities
正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P50 章节:5.2.1 回顾总结会: 回顾是最重要的一个实践,原因是它能让团队学习、改进和调整其过程。 开始是敏捷教练分配任务,在回顾会后, 团队成员可以自组织来安排任务、 改进过程。

97、 一个沉浸在预测性项目管理方法中的组织决定采用混合方法作为敏捷项目管理的过渡策略。已经特许了一个试点Scrum项目,并分配了Scrum角色和职责。项目经理希望确保向客户提供最优的价值。项目经理接下来应该做什么?
An organization that is steeped in a predictive project management approach has decided to adopt hybrid methods as a transition strategy to agile project management. A pilot scrum project has been chartered and scrum roles and responsibilities assigned. The project manager wants to ensure the optimal delivery of value to the customer. What should the project manager do next?

A: 分配故事点以确定产品待办事项列表的优先级
Assign story points to prioritize the product backlog

B: 要求该团队采用MoSCoW方法
Request that the team use the MoSCoW method

C: 为产品负责人安排Scrum培训
Schedule scrum training for the product owner

D: 将WBS分解为Scrum用户故事
Decompose the WBS into scrum user stories

正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:41 章节:4.3.2 产品负责人 Product Owner :创建待办列表并排序、 确认工作优先顺序 、提供反馈、 指导开发方向 。 ABD都是产品负责人做的事,因此, 要先确认产品负责 人有能力做这些事。

An agile team is in the middle of a sprint when the sponsor asks the project manager to stop work on several user stories in the current sprint. With a recent news announcement of new technology soon to hit the market, the sponsor is inclined to think that these user stories would be of little value. What should the project manager do?

A: 从冲刺待办事项列表移除发起人指定的用户故事
Remove the user stories indicated by the sponsor from the sprint backlog
B: 忽略发起人意见,并指示团队按原计划进行
Ignore the sponsor's input and instruct the team to proceed as originally planned

C: 联系产品负责人,询问用户故事是否仍具有优先级
Contact the product owner and ask if the user stories are still a priority

D: 进行市场调查以确认新技术的发布
Conduct market research to confirm the announcement of the new technology
正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:41 章节:4.3.2 产品负责人 Product Owner :创建待办列表并排序、 确认工作优先顺序 、提供反馈、 指导开发方向。 优先级的问题, 应该听PO的。

99、 一位敏捷教练被要求为即将到来的敏捷项目团队建立团队。管理层希望利用公司现有的人才,而不要使用外部资源。敏捷教练联系人力资源部门,在公司内部网站上为未来的团队成员发布招聘广告。敏捷教练在广告中提出的以下哪项工作要求是最好的?
An agile coach has been requested to put together a team for the upcoming agile project. The management wants to use the talent available in the company without the need to go outside. The agile coach approaches the human resource department to advertise the position for the prospective team members on the company internal website. Which of the following job requirements is best for the agile coach to indicate in the ad?

A: 熟悉动态系统软件开发方法(DSDM)
Experienced with the dynamic systems software development methods (DSDM)
B: 熟练掌握自动化测试过程和程序
Self-starter and proficient in the automated testing processes and procedures
C: 对不同技能是否有专注的专长和丰富的经验
Has a focused specialty as well as a breadth of experience across multiple skills
D: 具有团队合作精神,熟悉所有敏捷软件开发工具
Team player and briefly familiar with all agile software development tools

解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P42 章节:4.3.3 通才型专家: 敏捷团队是跨职能的。不过,许多成功的敏捷团队都由通才型专家组成,他们也称为 T 型人才。 这意味着这些团队成员在具备一项擅长的专业化技能的同时,还拥有多种技能的工作经验,而不是单一的专业化 T型、通才型、跨职能型人才是敏捷团队成员的重要特点。

A complex agile project that uses a new technology has been plagued by technical challenges, constantly changing priorities, strict deadlines, and the customer's lack of familiarity with agile delivery methods. This environment causes stress and frustration for the team members. Many of them started to come to see the project manager and complain about the issues. What should the project manager do first?

A: 提交变更请求
Submit a change request

B: 消除团队成员的挫败感
Absorb the frustration of the team members

C: 将问题升级上报给管理层
Escalate the issue to management

D: 向产品负责人介绍团队成员
Refer the team members to the product owner
正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P35 章节: 消除组织障碍: 仆人式领导还应该关注其他冗长的过程,这些过程往往造成瓶颈问题,阻碍团队或组织的敏捷性。可能需要处理的过程或部门的例子包括,财务部门、变更控制委员会或审计部门。仆人式领导可以与他人携手合作,共同质疑和审核他们的过程,为敏捷团队和领导提供支持。 团队促进者消除组织障碍。

A project manager has developed a comprehensive project management plan, including a fully elaborated WBS and detailed project schedule. Despite these efforts, the project is running behind schedule because the change control board (CCB) is unable to cope with the high volume of changes, even though most of them have been approved by the product owner. What is the project manager's best course of action?

A: 要求终止现有的项目,并寻求批准来启动一个将使用敏捷方法的新项目
Request the termination of the existing project and seek approval to initiate a new project that will utilize agile methodologies
B: 提交变更请求来更新项目进度计划,以反映CCB的长过程时间所造成的延迟
Submit a change request to update the project schedule to reflect the delays caused by the CCB's long process times
C: 寻求批准绕过变更控制过程,让项目团队直接与产品负责人合作
Seek approval to bypass the change control process and have the project team collaborate directly with the product owner
D: 告诉产品负责人项目正在使用预测模型,这意味着大多数变更都应该被拒绝
Instruct the product owner that the project is using a predictive model, which means most of the changes should be rejected
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:41 章节:4.3.2 产品负责人 Product Owner: 创建待办列表并排序 、确认工作优先顺序、 提供反馈、 指导开发方向 。 设立了PO,还要经过CCB,那设立PO就没有意义。

A project team is producing deliverables incrementally in order to take advantage of early revenue. The project is trending to meet all of the baselines. However, the project manager has determined that the team's velocity has been 50 points for each of the first five sprints with an SPI of 0.83 over the same time period. How should the project manager respond to the team's performance?

A: 提交变更请求以修订项目进度基准
Submit a change request to revise the project schedule baseline

B: 建议团队在冲刺计划中设定更现实的目标
Suggest that the team set more realistic goals during sprint planning

C: 打破时间表,让生产力回到正轨
Crash the schedule in order to get productivity back on track

D: 为每次冲刺分配60个故事点
Assign the team 60 story points for each sprint going forward

正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P61 章节:5.4.1 敏捷团队的衡量结果: 项目发起人通常想知道项目什么时候能够完成。一旦团队建立了稳定的速度(每个迭代的故事或故事点的平均数量)或平均周期时间, 团队就能够预测项目将花费多长时间。 每次速度恒定,说明团队能力稳定,建议将进度基准调 节为与速度一致。

103、你正在为一个将使用敏捷方法进行产品开发的项目制定项目管理计划。你希望确保关键的相关方在项目的整个过程中都能了解交付的业务价值。 你的最佳行动方案是什么?(选择三个)
You are in the process of developing the project management plan for a project which will use agile methods for product development. You want to ensure that the key stakeholders will be kept apprised of the business value delivered throughout the course of the project. What is your best course of action? (Choose three)
A: 等到项目结束时,向相关方展示项目可交付成果
Wait until the end of the project to demonstrate the project deliverables to the stakeholders
B: 邀请相关方参加定期的迭代评审会议
Invite the stakeholders to attend the regular iteration review meetings
C: 根据项目待办事项列表中每个项的业务值分配故事点
Assign story points based on the business value for each item in the project backlog
D: 利用信息发射器,如看板和燃烧图表。
Utilize information radiators such as a Kanban board and burn charts.
E: 确保沟通管理计划指定定期向相关方报告项目状态。
Ensure the communications management plan specifies periodic project status reporting to the stakeholders
正确答案:B,D,E 你的答案:B,D,E
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P55 章节:5.2.5 展示/评审: 当团队以用户故事的形式完成特定功能时,团队会定期展示工作产品。 看过展示后,产品负责人接受或拒绝故事。 A是传统项目 C是PO做的

104、 随着项目进行,项目经理会收到相关方的抱怨,他们声称项目状态会议和电子邮件报告太少,无法让相关方了解项目的最新状态。项目经理审查沟通管理计划,并提交变更请求以修改报告状态的方式。项目经理最好在变更请求中包含以下哪项?
As the project progresses, the project manager gets complaints from stakeholders who say that project status meetings and email reports are too infrequent to keep the stakeholders up-to-date with the project's status. The project manager reviews the communications management plan and submits a change request to modify the way the status is reported. Which of the following is best for the project manager to include in the change request?

A: 结合使用信息发射源
Incorporating the use of information radiators

B: 终止分发电子邮件报告
Eliminating the distribution of email reports

C: 在每日站会汇报项目状况
Reporting project status at the daily standups

D: 将项目状态发送给更少的相关方
Sending project status to fewer stakeholders

正确答案:A 你的答案:A
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P152 章节:术语表 信息发射源:它是一种可见的实物展示其向组织内其他成员提供信息在不干扰团队的情况下即时实现知识共享。 信息发射源一般包括看板、燃尽图、燃起图、障碍日志等 在敏捷项目中,使用可见的实物展示信息更透明化。 C每日站会不报告项目状态。

An agile coach facilitates a meeting with the team to reflect and adapt on the iteration the team has just completed. The coach and the team members set the stage for the discussion, create a shared picture of what happened during the iteration, evaluate the data generated in the previous step, and decide what to do about the problems identified during the discussion. What should be the next step in this meeting?

A: 执行决策
Implement the decisions
B: 结束会议
Close the meeting
C: 演示产品
Demonstrate the product

D: 解散参与者
Dismiss the participants

正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P50 章节:5.2.1 回顾总结会:回顾是最重要的一个实践,原因是它能让 团队学习、改进和调整其过程。 回顾会的三个步骤,反思—改进—计划。题干中步骤完成,结束会议。

106、 一个关键相关方坚持团队用正式的文档广泛地记录软件代码。产品负责人解释说,虽然一定数量的文档是必要的,但团队成员最好把时间花在开发软件上,因为这对客户来说代表了最大的价值。产品负责人向相关方解释了以下哪一种敏捷概念?
A key stakeholder insists that the team extensively documents the software code in a formal document. The product owner explains that while a certain amount of documentation is necessary, the team members time is better spent developing the software because it is what represents the most value to the customer. Which of the following agile concepts does the product owner explain to the stakeholder?
A: 略微分配
Fractionally assigned

B: 服务型领导
Servant leadership

C: 勉强够用
Barely sufficient

D: 结对编程
Pair programming

正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P9 章节:2.2 工作的软件大于流程和文档。

At the iteration retrospective meeting, the team reviews the various metrics from the last iteration. The metrics include velocity, throughput, and work in progress (WIP). The team members analyze the data and conclude that their cycle time is very high and should be reduced. The team approaches the project manager for advice. Which of the following options is the best for the project manager to recommend?

A: 减少WIP和吞吐量
Decrease WIP and throughput
B: 提高WIP数量、生产速度和生产效率
Increase WIP, velocity, and throughout

C: 增加WIP和生产能力
Increase WIP and throughput

D: 减少WIP数量,提高生产能力
Decrease WIP and increase throughput
正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P103 章节:A3.4 看板方法: 通过限制在制品将可以提高工作效率和质量。 通过WIP(在制品管理)来提高工作效率与质量。

You are assigned to lead an agile project to develop a new software application. The requirements are so vague that you don't even know where to start the project planning. You realize that managing changes on the project will be the biggest challenge. What is your best strategy to handle changes in this environment?
A: 建立严格的变更控制过程
Establish a rigorous change control process
B: 在需求到达时实施所有变更和任何变更
Implement all and any changes as they arrive
C: 允许变更,即使在开发后期
Allow for changes, even late in development
D: 让团队决定要实施哪些变更
Let the team decide on what changes to implement
正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P9 章节:2.2 敏捷拥抱变更

An agile project team meets with the product owner, project manager, and other key project stakeholders to discuss the multiple levels of planning that the project will have to go through. The participants acknowledge that planning will be required at the release and iteration level. The project manager indicates that planning will also be required on a day-to-day basis. Which of the following does the project manager refer to?

A: 在项目中尽早实施体系结构刺探以降低技术风险
Carrying out an architectural spike to reduce technical risks as early as possible in the project
B: 同步和协调导致完成任务的个别活动
Synchronizing and coordinating the individual activities that lead up to the completion of a task
C: 获取项目团队成员,并根据资源管理计划分配任务
Acquiring project team members and assigning the tasks per the resource management plan
D: 与组织中从事同一项目的其他团队协调团队活动
Coordinating team activities with other teams working on the same project in the organization
正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P53 章节:5.2.4 每日站会:• 上次站会以来我都完成 了什么? • 从现在到下一次站会, 我计划完成什么? • 我的障碍(或风险或 问题)是什么? 每日站会不解决问题。

A project manager informs the agile team members that, due to unexpected personal issues, the product owner will be unable to attend the upcoming sprint review. What would be the most likely outcome of this situation?
A: 不清楚团队在冲刺期间开发的产品增量是否被接受
It will be unclear whether the product increment developed by the team during the sprint is accepted or not
B: 团队无法确定他们用于开发产品的过程是否需要改进
The team will be unable to determine if the process they used to develop the product needs improvement
C: 不会产生任何严重后果,因为产品负责人缺席了一次冲刺审查会议
There will be no significant consequences as a result of the product owner missing one sprint review meeting
D: 无法确定项目团队在最新冲刺期间增加了多少价值
It will be impossible to determine how much value has been added by the project team during the latest sprint

正确答案:A 你的答案:A
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P55 章节:5.2.5 展示/评审 :当团队以用户故事的形式完成特定功能时,团队会定期展示工作产品。看过展示后,产品负责人接受或拒绝故事。 PO决定接受或拒绝故事,PO来不了,就验收不了。

As the project progresses, the variance analysis shows that actual project performance compared to the performance measurement baseline deteriorates. As a result, estimates for cost, schedule, and scope are no longer valid. The team determines that a high volume of new features, change requests, and defect repairs are the main reason behind the variance. What is the project manager's best course of action to ensure that further estimates for the remainder of the work on the project are made based on real progress?
A: 将产品开发方法转换为通过短迭代来适应和度量进度
Switch the product development approach to adaptive and measure progress via short iterations
B: 限制项目中允许的新功能、变更请求和缺陷修复的数量
Limit the number of new features, change requests, and defect repairs allowed on the project
C: 请使用自下而上估算成本和进度计划估算技术以及三点估算范围
Use a bottom-up estimating technique for cost and schedule, and three-point estimating for scope
D: 基于单个的基准而不是单一的综合基准来衡量进度
Measure progress based on the individual baselines instead of the single integrated baseline

正确答案:A 你的答案:A
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P18 章节:3.1 四种生命周期特征。 变更过多,说明需求是动态的,不建议使用瀑布型。

During an iteration, a member of an agile team pulls the work item from the top of the iteration backlog. The work item describes a feature to be developed next. As the team member reads the description, she realizes that the information is insufficient to develop the feature. The team member approaches the scrum master for advice. What should the scrum master recommend?

A: 根据可用信息开发功能
Develop the feature based on the available information
B: 执行体系结构刺探
Perform an architectural spike
C: 将事项返回到待办事项列表并选择另一个事项
Return the item to the backlog and select another one
D: 咨询产品负责人
Consult with the product owner
正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:41 章节:4.3.2 产品负责人 Product Owner: 创建待办列表并排序、 确认工作优先顺序、 提供反馈、 指导开发方向。 待办列表的中用户故事没有描述清楚,要找PO确认。

Four members of an agile team are co-located while two others work remotely from home. The project manager wants to purchase office supplies and other physical and digital tools for the team members to support their day-to-day work, enable collaboration, and promote the use of agile best practices. Which of the following is best for the project manager to buy?

A: 白板、索引卡、便签、活动挂图
Whiteboards, index cards, sticky notes, flip charts
B: 即时通信应用、网络摄像头、麦克风
Instant messaging applications, web cameras, microphones
C: 甘特图和项目管理信息系统
Gantt charts and project management information system
D: 白板、索引卡、便利贴、网络摄像头、麦克风
Whiteboards, index cards, sticky notes, web cameras, microphones

正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:103 章节:A3.4 看板方法:“看板”一词按字面翻译为“视觉符号”或“卡”。带有卡片的物理看板面板能够推动和实现整个系统中工作流的可视化,让每个人都可以看到。该信息发射源(大型显示屏)包含许多列,表示需要完成的工作流的状态。 A没有网络设备、 B没有本地设备、 C非敏捷。

114、 一个敏捷项目已经进入了第七次冲刺阶段。在冲刺结束前两天,客户通知产品负责人,他们忘记在冲刺中包含某个功能。高级经理无意中听到谈话,并表示包含该功能意味着范围蔓延,并不应被允许。产品负责人的最佳行动方案是什么?
An agile project has entered its seventh sprint. Two days before the end of the sprint, the customer informs the product owner that they forgot to include one feature in the sprint. A senior manager overhears the conversation and states that including the feature represents scope creep and should not be allowed. What is the product owner's best course of action?

A: 与客户合作,在产品待办事项列表中为该功能设优先级
Work with the customer to prioritize the feature in the product backlog
B: 请求客户提交变更请求
Request that the customer submit a change request
C: 指导团队在当前的冲刺中开发该功能
Instruct the team to develop the feature in the current sprint
D: 按照高级经理的指示拒绝该功能
Reject the feature as instructed by the senior manager

正确答案:A 你的答案:A
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:41 章节:4.3.2 产品负责人 Product Owner: 创建待办列表并排序 、确认工作优先顺序、 提供反馈、 指导开发方向 敏捷拥抱变更, PO与客户一起确认优先级。

At the sprint planning meeting, the scrum master reiterates that if by the end of the sprint the product increment that the agile project team is building does not meet the criteria specified at the beginning of the sprint, this work will not be included in the velocity for the current sprint. What does the scrum master refer to?

A: 完工尚需估算 Estimate to complete
B: 完成的定义 Definition of done
C: 项目退出标准 Project exit criteria
D: 质量测量指标 Quality metrics
正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P151 章节:术语表 完成的定义DoD :它是团队需要满足的所有标准的核对单,只有可交付成果满足该核对单才能视为准备就绪可 供客户使用。 敏捷项目完成后,检查DOD,以验证是否满足标准

An agile team is about to begin the first iteration of the project to develop a software application for a customer. The sponsor requests that the team works in close collaboration with the customer to increase the chances of the project's success. Which of the following should the project manager encourage to support the sponsor's request?

A: 与客户谈判,制定全面的项目协议
Negotiating with the customer to formulate comprehensive project agreements

B: 根据团队成员的动机把工作交给他们,并相信他们能完成工作
Assigning work to the team members based on their motivation and trust them to get the job done

C: 指责客户和团队可以无限期地保持恒定的速度
Ensuring that the customer and the team can maintain a constant pace indefinitely

D: 欢迎客户需求的变更,即使是在产品开发的后期
Welcoming changing customer requirements, even late in the development of the product
正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P9 章节:2.2 D敏捷拥抱变更; A客户合作大于合同谈判 ;B适合指导团队不适合客户合作

You are developing baselines for a multi-phase project to install smart wireless meters for a local electric utility company. The first phase will prepare infrastructure, second will install the meters, and third will upload the software. However, due to the opposition of anti-wireless-technology groups, it's unclear if the project will be completed all across the planned region. What is your best course of action to increase the chances of delivering value in case the project closes prematurely?

A: 要求当地政府为项目团队成员提供必要的安全措施,以保护他们免受与反无线技术团体的潜在对抗
Request that the local government provide the necessary security measures for the project team members to protect them from the potential confrontation with the anti-wireless-technology groups
B: 获得发起人的批准,向那些同意额外工作以尽快完成工作的人提供奖金,即使这涉及到在夜晚和周末轮班工作
Get approval from the sponsor to offer bonuses to those who agree to work extra time to complete the work as fast as possible even if this involves working in shifts during nights and weekends
C: 建议将项目从多阶段切换到一阶段方法,并完成基础设施准备、仪表安装和软件上传,迭代一次一个邻域
Suggest switching the project from a multi-phase to one-phase approach and complete infrastructure preparation, meters' installation, and software upload in short iterations one neighborhood at a time
D: 建议项目终止,因为在方案中描述的情况下,无法按时、按时完成项目、范围和预算,并为客户提供任何价值
Recommend project termination since under the circumstances described in the scenario there is no way to complete the project on time, scope and budget, and deliver any value to the customer

正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P9 章节:2.2 敏捷十二原则第1条 :我们的最高目标是,通过尽早持续交付有价值的软件来满足客户的需求。 价值交付是敏捷原则的第一条

118、 一家公司考虑进行开发新移动应用的一个项目。因为目前还不清楚目标用户将如何使用该应用,公司决定开发一个早期版本只有必备功能的增量,。若用户反馈积极,则使用预测性项目管理方法推进全面开发。手机应用的提前发布代表了什么?
A company considers a project to develop a new mobile app. Since it's unclear how will target users adopt the app, the company decides to develop an early release incrementally with only the must-have features, and then, if the feedback from the users is positive, move forward with full-blown development using a predictive project management approach. What does the early release of the mobile app represent?

A: 敏捷发布规划
Agile release planning

B: 最小可行产品
Minimum viable product

C: 功能完整的原型
Fully functioning prototype

D: 工作分解结构
Work breakdown structure

正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P23 章节:3.1.3 MVP最小可行产品:完整性和交付是主观的。团队可能需要获得关于原型的反馈, 然后可能选择将最小可行性产 品 (MVP) 交付给部分客户。客户的反馈将帮助团队了解他们 需要为随后交付的最终功能的完善提供些什么。 使用最小可行产品获得客户尽早地反馈。

During iteration planning, an agile coach wants to ensure that her development team has an easy way of organizing their work as well as a visual representation at a glance of the work remaining to be completed in an iteration. Which of the following tools is best for the agile coach to use to accomplish his goals?

A: 燃尽图 A burndown chart
B: 任务板 A task board
C: 燃起图 A burnup chart
D: 一览表 A glance chart
正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P105 章节:A3.4 看板面板(如图 A3-2 所示)是一种技术含量低但接触广泛的技术,使用者在一开始时可能会认为其过于简单,但很快便会发现其强大的功能。看板面板利用列进入和退出 策略以及限制在制品等制约因素,可提供一目了然的工作流、瓶颈、 阻碍和整体状态信息。此外,面板可作为面向所有观众的信息发射源,提供团队工作状态的最新信息。 只有看板面板能够 同时规划工作和了解进度。燃尽图和燃起图仅能了解进度。

Gold plating had been a recurring issue on your project as the team has been adding features they think are useful for the customer even though the features were not included in the WBS. Change requests have been submitted after the fact, and some of the features were eventually added to the project scope. You are concerned about deviations from the plan. What might you do to control scope better and prevent further gold plating?

A: 采用敏捷方法,这样团队就可以开发任何他们认为有价值的功能
Adopt an agile approach so the team can develop any features they deem valuable

B: 提交变更请求,以获取问题日志中的镀金问题
Submit a change request to capture the gold plating problem in the issue log
C: 在项目回顾中讨论问题,并更新经验教训登记册
Discuss the issue at the project retrospective and update the lessons learned register

D: 与团队成员进行日常站会的敏捷实践相协调
Incorporate the agile practice of holding daily standup meetings with the team
正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:补充知识点 范围蔓延: 在客户的要求下,没有经过正常的范围变更控制批准程序, 而直接扩大了项目定义范围的工作内容。 镀金:范围蔓延的一种,指在定义范围的工作范围以内,项目团队主动增加的额外工作。 镀金是在任何开发方法中 都不建议的。因此A不对, 即使到敏捷,也是PO决定范围。 D,每日站会让开发团队集中在现有范围内。

The first iteration of an agile project is about to begin. The sponsor gathers the team, the scrum master, the product owner, and other project stakeholders for the kick-off meeting. The sponsor emphasizes the need to identify and respond to the project risks as early in the project as possible and at the minimal cost. What is the best way for the meeting participants to implement the sponsor's request?

A: 团队和相关方应该经常审查产品增量
The team and stakeholders should frequently review product increments.
B: 项目相关方应该在每次冲刺中执行基于风险的刺探
The project stakeholders should conduct risk-based spikes in each sprint.
C: 产品负责人和发起人应该对高风险的用户故事进行优先级排序
The product owner and the sponsor should prioritize high-risk user stories.
D: 团队应该与Scrum主管一起实现结对编程
The team should implement pair programming with the scrum master.

正确答案:A 你的答案:A
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P56 章节:5.2.7 持续集成: 在不同层面测试、验收测试驱动开发 (ATDD) 、测试驱动开发和行为驱动开发、 刺探 。 B刺探应由团队做 C,PO与团队和相关 方共同确认优先级。 D,结对编程应由团 队来做。

A project to develop visualizations of the safety and efficacy of a new drug is underway. Scrum has been selected as the development approach. Midway into the third sprint, a project team member finds that the data provided is missing a mandatory parameter. The risk of getting incomplete data was identified and recorded in the risk register earlier, during project planning. When would be the most appropriate approach to surface this problem?

A: 问题应作为主题包含来在下次冲刺回顾上进行讨论
The problem should be included as a topic for discussion at the next sprint retrospective.
B: 团队成员应在每日Scrum会议上将问题作为障碍提出来
The team member should raise the issue as an impediment during the daily scrum meeting.
C: 在冲刺审查中应演示具有缺失参数的产品增量
The product increment with the missing parameter should be demonstrated at the sprint review.
D: 已实现的风险应触发并由规划风险应对过程解决
The realized risk should trigger and be addressed by the Plan Risk Responses process.
正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P53 章节:5.2.4 每日站会:• 上次站会以来我都完成 了什么? • 从现在到下一次站会, 我计划完成什么? • 我的障碍(或风险或 问题)是什么? 每日站会会提出问题或风险或障碍

123、 你负责的一个大型项目是在你的城市安装5G互联网中心。尽管大多数项目变量都是清晰的,并且可以使用瀑布方法进行管理,但是技术方面并没有完全定义,并且将随着项目的进展进行详细阐述。发起人要求更频繁和更快地交流项目信息。为了满足发起人的要求,你不会使用以下哪个方法?
You are in charge of a large project to install 5G internet hubs across your city. Although most of the project variables are clear and can be managed using the waterfall approach, technical aspects are not fully defined and will be elaborated as the project progresses. The sponsor requests that project information will be communicated more frequently and quickly. To address the sponsor's request, you will use all of the following, except:

A: 保持频繁的团队检查点
Holding frequent team checkpoints
B: 进行有规律的相关方审查
Conducting regular stakeholder reviews
C: 实现信息发射源
Implementing information radiators
D: 每周传达项目状态
Communicating project status weekly

正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P152 章节:术语表 信息发射源: 它是一种可见的实物展示其向组织内其他成员提供信息在不干扰团队的情况下即时实现知识共享。 信息发射源一般包括看板、燃尽图、燃起图、障碍日志等 四个选项中,只有D不够敏捷。

You are an executive in a large organization that considers a gradual transition from a predictive to the agile project management approach. You hire an external consulting company to evaluate the current practices and propose the best way for the transition. After observing your organization for several months, the consultant lays out several options. Which option would you least likely to select?

A: 以两到四周的迭代周期开发产品
Developing the product in two- to four-week iterations
B: 将每日站会纳入团队的日常工作
Incorporating daily standup meetings into the team's routine
C: 使用每周会议跟踪项目进展
Tracking the project progress using weekly meetings

D: 在每次迭代的末尾进行团队回顾
Holding team retrospectives at the end of each iteration
正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P50 章节:5.2.1 迭代计划会: 每日站会 、迭代迭代评审会 、迭代回顾会 。 C不敏捷

During an agile iteration, Task 1 cannot be completed on time due to unexpected challenges. Another team within the project is depending on timely completion of Task 1 in order to fulfill their part of the project. How should the Project Manager resolve this issue?

A: 分别与两个团队会面,让他们想出一个方法来满足要求的最后期限并按时完成项目
Meet with both teams separately and ask them to figure out a way to meet the required deadlines and complete the project on time
B: 与产品负责人会面,重新确定迭代待办事项列表的优先级,以免影响其他团队或义务
Meet with the product owner to reprioritize the iteration backlog so that it does not impact other teams or obligations
C: 增加项目团队的成员数量,并增加迭代长度,以确保工作将按照进度计划完成
Increase the number of team members for the project team and increase the iteration length ensuring that the work will be completed according to schedule
D: 让团队成员知道你希望他们在困难条件下尽最大努力,并确保在经验教训中注意迭代的挑战
Let team members know you want them to do their best under difficult circumstances, and make sure to note the iteration's challenges in lessons learned

正确答案:B 你的答案:B
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:41 章节:4.3.2 产品负责人 Product Owner: 创建待办列表并排序、 确认工作优先顺序、 提供反馈 、指导开发方向 本次迭代已经结束,下次迭代是解决问题还是做新任务, 需要PO给出优先级。

You are leading a project to develop a new smartphone. Since you are anticipating many changes in requirements and continuous feedback from stakeholders to adjust the smartphone accordingly, the work will be done iteratively in small increments. However, the camera for the smartphone will be developed by a vendor who refuses to collaborate in an incremental way. What project management approach is best for you to select for this project?

A: 以敏捷方法为主,带有一些预测组件
Predominantly agile with some predictive components
B: 以预测方法为主,带有一些敏捷组件
Predominantly predictive with some agile components
C: 在计划过程中具有预测性,在执行过程中具有敏捷性
Predictive during planning and agile during execution
D: 在计划和执行期间的敏捷项目管理方法
Agile during planning and predictive during execution
正确答案:A 你的答案:A
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P26 章节:3.1.6 混合生命周期的特征:对于整个项目,没有必要使用单一的方法。为达到特定的目标,项目经常要结合不同的生命周期要素。预测、迭代、增量和/或敏捷方法的组合就是一种混合方法。 从题干描述来看,手机开发方法主要为敏捷,摄像头为 预测。
You meet with your team to determine the life cycle for your project. After analyzing the best way to define and manage requirements, develop deliverables, handle changes, control risk and cost, and engage key stakeholders, the decision is made to select a hybrid life cycle. With the project life cycle selected, how often will the key stakeholders be involved?

A: 持续参与 Continuously
B: 在特定里程碑参与 At specific milestones
C: 定期参与 Regularly
D: 完全不参与 Not involved at all
正确答案:C 你的答案:C
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P26 章 节:3.1.6 混合生命周期的特征: 对于整个项目,没有必要使用单一的方法。为达到特定的目标,项目经常要结合不同的生命周期要素。预测、 迭代、增量和/或敏捷方法的组合就是一种混合方法。 A是敏捷, B是预测。 而混合型建议定期参与。

128、为了生产可交付的产品,你的项目必须与几个供应商签订合同。可交付成果将使用一个敏捷框架进行开发,该框架采用约束驱动的交付方式,这将影响与供应商的合同关系。 以下哪一种策略最适合这个项目?(选择三个)
To produce deliverables, your project has to contract with several vendors. The deliverables will be developed using an agile framework with constraint-driven delivery, which will influence the contractual relationship with the vendors. Which of the following strategies would be the most appropriate for this project? (Choose three)?
A: 根据详细的工作分解结构制定采购工作说明书
Develop the procurement statement of work based on the detailed WBS
B: 追求与供应商共享风险和回报的关系。
Pursue a shared-risk-reward relationship with the vendors
C: 与供应商签订合同时,采用固定价格增量。
Adopt fixed-price increments when contracting with the vendors
D: 对每个供应商使用一个标准的固定价格合同。
Utilize a standard firm-fixed-price contract for each of the vendors
E: 在供应商合同中包含提前取消的选项。
Include an early cancellation option in the vendor contracts
正确答案:B,C,E 你的答案:B,C,E
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P77-78 章节:6.3 采购和合同: • 多层结构 • 强调价值交付 • 总价增量 • 固定时间和材料 • 累进的时间和材料 • 提前取消方案 • 动态范围方案 • 团队扩充 • 支持全方位供应商 敏捷的采购和合同
An agile team is developing custom manufacturing equipment for a client. After three iterations, a functional prototype is ready, but it lacks critical safety features as well as several enhancements that can be installed on-site in future releases. To get early feedback from the client, the product owner requests that the team deliver an MVP as soon as possible. What should the project manager do to address the product owner's request?

A: 在原型上安装安全功能和增强功能,并交付给客户端
Install safety features and enhancements on the prototype and deliver it to the client
B: 仅安装原型上的安全功能,然后交付给客户端
Install only the safety features on the prototype and deliver it to the client
C: 将原型以当前状态交付给客户端,因为它已经正常运行
Deliver the prototype to the client in its current condition as it is already functiona
D: 仅安装原型上的增强功能并交付给客户端
Install only the enhancements on the prototype and deliver it to the client
解析:知识点出处: PMBOK 6th 页码:P23 章节:3.1.3 MVP 最小可行产品:完整性和交付是主观的。团队可能需要获得关于原型的反馈, 然后可能选择将最小可行性产 品 (MVP) 交付给部分客户。客户的反馈将帮助团队了解他们 需要为随后交付的最终功能的完善提供些什么。 缺安全功能, 就给安全功能

An agile team holds a release retrospective. The discussion is focused on some disruptive risk events that occurred in the last few weeks, just before the software has been released. The risks were difficult to resolve and threatened the release date. The risks were identified early in release planning but were associated with user stories that were relatively low in value to the customer. What could have been done to avoid having these risks occur so close to the scheduled release date?

A: 应该批准加班,并在发布前几周增加资源,以减轻高风险用户故事的影响
Overtime should have been authorized, and resources added in the weeks leading up to the release to mitigate the impact of the high-risk user stories.
B: 产品负责人应该更勤奋地在待办事项列表中编写用户故事,以便将风险降到最低或完全消除
The product owner should have been more diligent in writing the user stories in the release backlog so that the risk is minimized or removed completely
C: 真的没有什么可以避免所描述的问题,因为风险事件总是发生在预定的发布日期之前
There is really nothing that could have been done to avoid the issue described because risk events always occur just before the scheduled release date.
正确答案:D 你的答案:D
解析:知识点出处:敏捷实践指南 页码:P42 章节:4.3.3 风险价值矩阵:产品负责人的工作是确保团队从事最高价值的工作。 首先要做高风险高价值的事情。

A program manager requests regular updates on the progress of the projects under the program. All but one project in the program are managed using traditional methods. The program manager indicates that there are too many scope changes across the program and wants to see how these changes affect the overall progress of the various projects. What is the best course of action for the scrum master leading the agile project to address the program manager's request?

A: 邀请项目集经理参加迭代审查会议 Invite the program manager to attend the iteration review meeting
B: 建议项目集经理参加每日站会 Suggest that the program manager participate in the daily standups
C: 让项目集经理审查迭代燃尽图 Have the program manager view the iteration burndown chart
D: 定期将发布燃起图发送给项目集经理 Periodically send the release burnup chart to the program manager
解析:知识点出处: 敏捷实践指南 页码:P152 章节:术语表 信息发射源: 它是一种可见的实物展示其向组织内其他成员提供信息在不干扰团队的情况下即时实现知识共享。 信息发射源一般包括看板、燃尽图、燃起图、障碍日志等 信息发射源可以实现信息共享。 C:不应该是审查,而是定期发送。

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