这一节把isomorphism单独阐述，即既是一对一又是onto的，也就是一个bijection。其本质可以用文中的一句话概括：isomorphism is an equivalence relation on the class of vector spaces。Theorem 10说明了所有n维vector space都和是isomorphic的，实际上，isomorphism是“dimension preserving”。
Let be the set of complex numbers and let be the field of real numbers. With the usual operations, is a vector space over . Describe explicitly an isomorphism of this space onto .
Solution: For any , define , then is an isomorphism of onto .
Let be a vector space over the field of complex numbers, and suppose there is an isomorphism of onto . Let be vectors in such that
( a ) Is in the subspace spanned by and ?
( b ) Let be the subspace spanned by and , and let be the subspace spanned by and . What is the intersection of and ?
( c ) Find a basis for the subspace of spanned by the four vectors .
( a ) It is easy to see are linearly independent, thus are linearly independent, since
are linearly dependent, thus is in the subspace spanned by .
( b ) From ( a ) we have , thus we have
Since is not in the span of , we have .
( c ) One basis can be .
Let be the set of all complex Hermitian matrices, that is, the set of complex matrices such that (the bar denoting complex conjugation). As we pointed out in Example 6 of Chapter 2, is a vector space over the field of real numbers, under the usual operations. Verify that
is an isomorphism of onto .
Solution: Denote , if , then it is easy to see , thus , and means and . So is one-one. Next let any , then , since we know , also , then we let
it is easy to see .
Show that is isomorphic to .
Solution: For any , we define , i.e., is a sequence of ordered list of the row vectors of . is an isomorphism from to .
Let be the set of complex numbers regarded as a vector space over the field of real numbers (Exercise 1). We define a function from into the space of real matrices, as follows. If with and real numbers, then
( a ) Verify that is a one-one (real) linear transformation of into the space of real matrices.
( b ) Verify that .
( c ) How would you describe the range of ?
( a ) It is enough to show means , it is easy to see
( b ) Let , then , so
( c ) The range of is the subspace of matrices such that .
Let and be finite-dimensional vector spaces over the field . Prove that and are isomorphic if and only if .
Solution: If and are isomorphic, then let be an isomorphism from to , and be a basis of , so , consider , for any , then we can find scalars such that , so , so spans . If , then since is non-singular, then
which means is linearly independent, we can conclude is a basis of , and then .
Conversely, if , then and are isomorphic to , by Theorem 10, let and be two isomorphism, then is an isomorphism.
Let and be vector spaces over the field and let be an isomorphism of onto . Prove that is an isomorphism of onto .
Solution: Denote , if , then for all , since is non-singular, we have for all , given any , we can have some s.t. , so for all , thus is the zero transformation.
For any , if we choose a basis of , then can be written as
Notice that is a basis for , so if we define
then , and we have
this means , thus is onto and the proof is complete.