Unity 广告牌 (Billboard)的实现

实现一个广告牌的效果,使一个面片在摄像机旋转的过程中始终面向摄像机。

效果如下截图。

实现的Shader之一

(来自于冯姐Unity Shader入门精要十一章11.3.2的Shader)
// Upgrade NOTE: replaced 'mul(UNITY_MATRIX_MVP,*)' with 'UnityObjectToClipPos(*)'

// Upgrade NOTE: replaced '_World2Object' with 'unity_WorldToObject'

Shader "Unlit/fll-Billboard" {
	Properties {
		_MainTex ("Main Tex", 2D) = "white" {}
		_Color ("Color Tint", Color) = (1, 1, 1, 1)
		_VerticalBillboarding ("Vertical Restraints", Range(-5, 5)) = 2
	}
	SubShader {
		// Need to disable batching because of the vertex animation
		Tags {"Queue"="Transparent" "IgnoreProjector"="True" "RenderType"="Transparent" "DisableBatching"="True"}
		Cull off
		Pass { 
			Tags { "LightMode"="ForwardBase" }
			
			ZWrite On
			Blend SrcAlpha OneMinusSrcAlpha
			Cull Off
		
			CGPROGRAM
			
			#pragma vertex vert
			#pragma fragment frag
			
			#include "Lighting.cginc"
			
			sampler2D _MainTex;
			float4 _MainTex_ST;
			fixed4 _Color;
			fixed _VerticalBillboarding;
			
			struct a2v {
				float4 vertex : POSITION;
				float4 texcoord : TEXCOORD0;
			};
			
			struct v2f {
				float4 pos : SV_POSITION;
				float2 uv : TEXCOORD0;
			};
			
			v2f vert (a2v v) {
				v2f o;
				
				// Suppose the center in object space is fixed
				float3 center = float3(0, 0, 0);
				float3 viewer = mul(unity_WorldToObject,float4(_WorldSpaceCameraPos, 1));
				
				float3 normalDir = viewer - center;
				// If _VerticalBillboarding equals 1, we use the desired view dir as the normal dir
				// Which means the normal dir is fixed
				// Or if _VerticalBillboarding equals 0, the y of normal is 0
				// Which means the up dir is fixed
				normalDir.y =normalDir.y * _VerticalBillboarding;
				normalDir = normalize(normalDir);
				// Get the approximate up dir
				// If normal dir is already towards up, then the up dir is towards front
				float3 upDir = abs(normalDir.y) > 0.999 ? float3(0, 0, 1): float3(0, 1, 0);
				float3 rightDir = normalize(cross(upDir, normalDir))*-1;
				upDir = normalize(cross(normalDir, rightDir));
				
				// Use the three vectors to rotate the quad
				float3 centerOffs = v.vertex.xyz - center;
				float3 localPos = center + rightDir * centerOffs.x + upDir * centerOffs.y + normalDir * centerOffs.z;
              
				o.pos = UnityObjectToClipPos(float4(localPos, 1));
				o.uv = TRANSFORM_TEX(v.texcoord,_MainTex);

				return o;
			}
			
			fixed4 frag (v2f i) : SV_Target {
				fixed4 c = tex2D (_MainTex, i.uv);
				c.rgb *= _Color.rgb;
				
				return c;
			}
			
			ENDCG
		}
	} 
	FallBack "Transparent/VertexLit"
}

注意:代码中有一处需要修改,如下:

v2f vert (a2v v) {
    //*****
    float3 rightDir = normalize(cross(upDir, normalDir))*-1;
    //*****
}

乘以-1旋转方向,否则在Unity中可能出现翻转。

实现的Shader之二

来自于Wiki Cg_Programming(https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cg_Programming/Unity/Billboards)

原代码:

Shader "Cg  shader for billboards" {
   Properties {
      _MainTex ("Texture Image", 2D) = "white" {}
      _ScaleX ("Scale X", Float) = 1.0
      _ScaleY ("Scale Y", Float) = 1.0
   }
   SubShader {
      Pass {   
         CGPROGRAM
 
         #pragma vertex vert  
         #pragma fragment frag

         // User-specified uniforms            
         uniform sampler2D _MainTex;        
         uniform float _ScaleX;
         uniform float _ScaleY;

         struct vertexInput {
            float4 vertex : POSITION;
            float4 tex : TEXCOORD0;
         };
         struct vertexOutput {
            float4 pos : SV_POSITION;
            float4 tex : TEXCOORD0;
         };
 
         vertexOutput vert(vertexInput input) 
         {
            vertexOutput output;

            output.pos = mul(UNITY_MATRIX_P, 
              mul(UNITY_MATRIX_MV, float4(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0))
              + float4(input.vertex.x, input.vertex.y, 0.0, 0.0)
              * float4(_ScaleX, _ScaleY, 1.0, 1.0));
 
            output.tex = input.tex;

            return output;
         }
 
         float4 frag(vertexOutput input) : COLOR
         {
            return tex2D(_MainTex, float2(input.tex.xy));   
         }
 
         ENDCG
      }
   }
}

这段代码使用有一些限制:

  1. 不支持透明通道
  2. 当shader开启批处理时会产生显示错误,即当独享距离摄像机比较远时,对象会被裁剪
  3. 不能再Unity的Transform变换界面对其进行缩放和变换

修改后代码如下:

Shader "Unlit/fll-Billboard-2" {
   Properties {
      _MainTex ("Texture Image", 2D) = "white" {}
      _ScaleX ("Scale X", Float) = 1.0
      _ScaleY ("Scale Y", Float) = 1.0
	  _Color("_Color",Color)=(1,1,1,1)
   }
   SubShader {
	   Tags {"Queue"="Transparent" "IgnoreProjector"="True" "RenderType"="Transparent" "DisableBatching"="True"}
	   //Tags { "DisableBatching" = "True" }
      Pass {   	
        Tags { "DisableBatching" = "True" }
		ZWrite On
		Blend SrcAlpha OneMinusSrcAlpha
		Cull Off

		 CGPROGRAM
 
         #pragma vertex vert  
         #pragma fragment frag
		 #include "Lighting.cginc"

         // User-specified uniforms            
         uniform sampler2D _MainTex;        
         uniform float _ScaleX;
         uniform float _ScaleY;
		 uniform fixed4 _Color;
		 uniform float4 _MainTex_ST;

         struct vertexInput {
            float4 vertex : POSITION;
            float4 tex : TEXCOORD0;
         };
         struct vertexOutput {
            float4 pos : SV_POSITION;
            float2 tex : TEXCOORD0;
			//float2 uv:TEXCOORD1;
         };
 
         vertexOutput vert(vertexInput input) 
         {
            vertexOutput output;

            output.pos = mul(UNITY_MATRIX_P, 
              mul(UNITY_MATRIX_MV, float4(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0))
              + float4(input.vertex.x, input.vertex.y, 0.0, 0.0)
              * float4(_ScaleX, _ScaleY, 1.0, 1.0));
 
           output.tex = TRANSFORM_TEX(input.tex,_MainTex);
		   //output.uv=TRANSFORM_TEX(input.tex,_MainTex);
			//output.tex=input.tex;
            return output;
         }
 
         float4 frag(vertexOutput input) : SV_Target
         {
			fixed4 c=tex2D(_MainTex, float2(input.tex.xy));
            //return tex2D();   
			c.rgb*=_Color.rgb;
			return c;
         }
         ENDCG
      }
   }
}

绘制人物头顶到面片的线段代码如下:

using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;
using System;
public class DrawLineRender : MonoBehaviour {
	public Color materialColor;
	LineRenderer lineRenderer_global;
	Vector3 startPos;
	Vector3 endPos;
	Vector3[] poss;
	[SerializeField]
	private Vector3 offset=Vector3.zero;
	[SerializeField]
	[Range(0f,0.2f)]
	private float width=0.1f;
	void Awake () {

		LineRenderer lineRenderer = this.gameObject.AddComponent<LineRenderer> ();
		Material material=new Material(Shader.Find("Unlit/Color"));
		lineRenderer.material = material;
		lineRenderer.material.color = materialColor;
		lineRenderer.widthMultiplier = width;
		lineRenderer.positionCount = 2;
		lineRenderer.numCornerVertices=30;
		lineRenderer.numCapVertices=30;

		startPos = this.transform.parent.GetChild (2).transform.localPosition;
		endPos = this.transform.parent.GetChild (0).transform.localPosition;
		//var offset=new Vector3(0,1.254f,0);
		poss = new Vector3[2] { startPos-offset, endPos-offset };		
	}
	void Start()
	{
		lineRenderer_global= this.GetComponent<LineRenderer> ();
	}
	void Update () {

		for (int i = 0; i < lineRenderer_global.positionCount; i++) {
			lineRenderer_global.SetPosition (i, poss[i]);
		}
	}
}

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