一、joint  types 

Screws(螺旋): screws, which can be seen as a combination of revolute joints and prismatic joints (with linked values), have one DoF and are use describe a movement similar to a screw. A pitch parameter defines the amount of translation for a given amount of rotation. A screw configura defined by one value that represents the amount of rotation about its first reference frame's z-axis. Screws can be used as passive joints, or as a joints (motors).
Spherical joints: spherical joints have three DoF and are used to describe rotational movements (with 3 DoF) between objects. Their configuration is defined by three values that represent the amount of rotation around their first reference frame's x-, y- and z-axis. The three va that define a spherical joint's configuration are specified as
Euler angles. In some situations, a spherical joint can be thought of as 3 concurrent orthogonal to each other joints, that are parented in a hierarchy-chain. The analogy is however only valid while all revolute joints keep an orientation
distinct from any of the two others: indeed, should two joints come close to coincide, a singular situation might appear and the mechanism mig lose one DoF. This does never happen with spherical joints that are internally handled to avoid this kind of situation. Spherical joints are always passive joints, and cannot act as motors.

二、joint modes

1.Torque or force mode: a joint that operates in force/torque mode will be handled by the physics engine.  

Motor enabled: enables or disables the motor of the joint. If disabled, the joint is free. Available only if the joint is in torque/force mode.

Control loop enabled: enables or disables the joint control loop. By default, a built-in PID controller is used (see further down).

Hybrid operation: when the joint is in passive mode, inverse kinematics mode or dependent mode, it can optionally also be operated in a hybrid fashion: hybrid operation allows the joint to operate  in a regular way, but additionally, just before dynamics calculations, the current joint position will be copied to the target joint position, and then, during dynamics calculations, the joint will be handled as a motor in position control (if and only if it is dynamically enabled). Refer to the joint types and operation  section for details.