ROS2网络课程资料分享2019.10.26

目前,网络上主要的ROS2课程主要有:

ROS2在非常快速发展,免费版本课程资料分享如下:


疑问:

  • 关于Python2

Python 2 will reach end of life in two months. This shouldn’t be news to anyone who hasn’t been living under a rock, and plans are in place to use Python 3 in Noetic (whereas ROS 2 has always used Python 3). However, the question from our customer was this: What does that mean for existing ROS 1 distributions (Kinetic and Melodic)? They are still using (and will continue to use) Python 2.

The answer really depends on where you’re getting Python 2. Tl;dr: If you’re using Ubuntu Xenial (16.04) or Bionic (18.04), please know that Python 2 from the Ubuntu repositories will continue to be supported for the lifetime of the Ubuntu release, regardless of Python 2’s upstream support status.

Ubuntu’s package repositories are split into a number of components: main, restricted, universe, and multiverse. You can read that link to learn all about them, but let me briefly quote it so you can understand the difference between main and universe:

main:

The main component contains applications that are free software, can be freely redistributed and are fully supported by the Ubuntu team. […] When you install software from the main component, you are assured that the software will come with security updates and that commercial technical support is available from Canonical.

universe:

The universe component is a snapshot of the free, open-source, and Linux world. […] Canonical does not provide a guarantee of regular security updates for software in the universe component, but will provide these where they are made available by the community.

All Ubuntu releases prior to Eoan (19.10) included Python 2 in main. In Eoan it was demoted to universe. This means that for Xenial (16.04) and Bionic (18.04), Python 2 falls under the main guarantees quoted above. It will continue to be fully-supported and receive free security updates.

In other words, as long as you’re running Kinetic or Melodic against its recommended Ubuntu release targets, you should be golden.

直接学习和应用ROS2Dashing不会有此疑问,如果使用ROS1Melodic等版本,推荐使用Python3进行机器人程序开发。

这个非常非常有趣。

This week’s ROSject contains a series of demos showing how to embed ROS visualizations inside Jupyter notebooks .

Demos are possible thanks to the Jupyter-ROS project developed by Wolf Vollprecht from Quantstack. All credit goes to him and his team.

This list of ROS enabled notebook demos work off-the-shelf by using the ROSDS integrated simulations. The original notebook demos were created by Wolf. At The Construct, we only have added the explanations required to understand the code and launch the simulations, so you can have an live demo without having to install and configure your computer.

ROSject file: https://rds.theconstructsim.com/l/d4b0981/

  • 工业机器人ROS-I培训

SwRI hosted a session for ROS-Industrial training onsite in San Antonio on October 8-10. Of special interest was an introduction to ROS2 as a new advanced topic. This was the first inclusion of ROS2 material at a ROS-Industrial Americas training event and drew significant interest, with over a dozen developers attending.

ROS2 is a new iteration of ROS with many aspects undergoing complete redesigns, including core components such as the middleware layer and the build system. Along with these architectural redesigns, Open Robotics is taking the opportunity of breaking compatibility to make extensive improvements to the ROS experience in all aspects. As a consequence, many concepts, tools, and techniques we grew familiar with in ROS1 are no longer present and some upfront time learning about the changes is needed. The new training material developed at SwRI aims to ease this transition by providing some practice working in ROS2 for developers already familiar with ROS1 systems. There are currently three exercises developed which have been made available on the public ROS-Industrial training website. These exercises run through (1) the basics of working with ROS2 systems with a focus on the changes to the command-line tools, (2) the steps needed to port existing ROS1 packages with C++ code to functionally equivalent ROS2 packages, and (3) how to use the ROS1-ROS2 bridge to enable communication between two systems when porting is not yet feasible. Some additional details were also presented to the group, especially focused around SwRI’s ongoing experiences in porting a very large ROS1 codebase to ROS2.

Overall reception at the training event was quite positive, with a lot of interest to closely monitor the ongoing ROS2 development and see when the best time to start focusing on ROS2 will be. We expect that ROS2 training will continue to be a core topic, and plan to continue developing more material that will cover additional pieces of ROS2. Of course, eventually we expect to be training everyone in ROS2 from the start and have ROS1 relegated to maintenance mode. Be sure to check back frequently, as we’re right in the middle of this transition and updates could happen any time!

  • MoveIt2

The Fall edition of ROS-Industrial EU Tech Workshop took place at Fraunhofer IPA on October 09th and 10th, 2019.

We were glad to host two European MoveIt maintainers, namely Henning Kayser of ROS-Industrial Consortium member PickNik Robotics and Michael Görner from University of Hamburg. They gave us an insight into the latest developments of MoveIt (incorporating motion planning, manipulation, 3D perception, kinematics, control & navigation), current and planned developments for ROS2 (MoveIt2), and a hands-on on ROS(1)-based 'bare-metal to product'. First they presented an inside-view of the manipulation framework. Providing complementary academic and industrial perspectives, they shared their views and experiences on MoveIt's overall structure, practical deployment of planning-based pipelines, complex manipulation planning using the MoveIt Task Constructor, and upcoming future projects and ideas for a ROS2 migration. The workshop concluded with a practical session that guided the participants to setup a functional Pick&Place pipeline from a custom bare robot description. Slides and code examples are available at https://github.com/henningkayser/ROS-Industrial_EU_Fall19_MoveIt .

The first session on day 2 of the ROS-Industrial EU Fall'19 Workshop was about security in ROS where Sebastian Taurer from JOANNEUM RESEARCH presented his work on a penetration testing tool for ROS1, called 'ROSPenTo', and gave an introduction on how to use SROS2 to secure communications in ROS2. In the first part of the session ROSPenTo was introduced to provide basic information on how it works and what a user can do with it. During the hands-on section the participants were guided through a step-by-step manual showing how to analyse, penetrate and modify a running ROS1 system using ROSPenTo. In the second part of the session ROS2's security tools (a.k.a. SROS2) were explained and used to setup and configure a security infrastructure. The provided examples demonstrated the creation of all necessary security artefacts (e.g. keys, certificates, etc.) and also the procedure to securely distribute the artefacts to different machines. All the related information as well as the workshop tutorial can be found here: https://github.com/jr-robotics/ROS-Industrial_EU_Fall19_Workshop

The ScalABLE4.0 session at the ROS Industrial EU Fall'19 Workshop focused on presenting the set of technologies which are enabling flexibility in production lines in two industrial pilots of the automotive sector: PSA Peugeot Citroën and Simoldes Plásticos. Within the project, a complete digital manufacturing software stack is being developed, entitled 'Open Scalable Production System' (OSPS). The OSPS aims to be applied to efficiently and effectively visualize, virtualize, construct, control, maintain and optimize production lines through a tight integration of the enterprise information systems with transformable automation equipment paired up with the necessary open interfaces for optimized solutions on all hierarchy levels (slides).

During the workshop, attendees were introduced and got a chance to test, interact and develop with the set of components that compose the OSPS, namely: (i) The Advanced Plant Model, which is responsible for virtually integrating data from the industrial shop floor in a centralized digital twin; (ii) The Production Manager, which is a cloud-based software module that issues and supervises the execution of manufacturing tasks; (iii) SkiROS and Task Manager, which are distinct ROS-based approaches to orchestrating the behaviour of robotic systems; (iv) The Skill-based Robot Programming methodology, which enables the reutilization and adaptation of ROS-based robotic applications to different purposes, platforms, and environments; (v) and, finally, the ROS-CODESYS bridge (ROBIN - https://github.com/ScalABLE40/robin), which enables horizontal integration between robots and automation equipment.

As part of the Scalable project, Bjarne Grossmann from AAU and cofounder of RiACT presented their skill-based robot control software SkiROS v2 (slides). Their technology is based on extended behavior trees that allows the definition of reactive behavior for highly flexible manufacturing environments. The framework is backed by a semantic database for inference and support of task planning to automatically generate complex tasks. In the hands-on session, Bjarne demonstrated the system with a SkiROS-implementation of the classical ROS turtlesim demo. He showed that SkiROS can be easily used to create complex behavior (and not only for turtles). The demo can be found on the git repository https://github.com/Bjarne-AAU/skiros-demo. Soon, there will be an official open source release of the software. Stay tuned on www.riact.eu!

Next European expert workshops will be organized in Spring and Fall 2020. We will keep you posted!

PS: Some links to upcoming events in this respect:

ROS 2 F Name Brainstorming

Existing ROS 2 names and codenames:

  • Ardent Apalone - ardent
  • Bouncy Bolson - bouncy
  • Crystal Clemmys - crystal
  • Dashing Diademata - dashing
  • Eloquent Elusor - eloquent

Existing ROS 1 names and codenames:

  • Boxturtle - boxturtle
  • C Turtle - cturtle
  • Diamondback - diamondback
  • Electric Emys - electric
  • Fuerte - fuerte
  • Groovy Galapagos - groovy
  • Hydro Medusa - hydro
  • Indigo Igloo - indigo
  • Jade Turtle - jade
  • Kinetic Kame - kinetic
  • Lunar Loggerhead - lunar
  • Melodic Morenia - melodic
  • Noetic Ninjemys - noetic

Here are some links to turtle species to get us started.
http://www.chelonia.org/byspecies.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Turtle_genera
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Prehistoric_turtle_genera

Please share your suggestions and comments.

There are no rules to this process so be creative.

I’ll start us off with a couple:

ROS Metrics report for 2019

Background

We started collecting metrics in 2011. Reviewing the history you can see the growth and evolution of the community.

Measuring open source communities is very hard. The nature of being open and redistributable means that we definitely do not know everyone who is using it and that’s part of being open. These metrics can provide insight into trends within the community but should not be considered exhaustive or even close to complete but as a consistent snapshot. We have public instructions for setting up mirrors and these measurements do not count the any statistics for mirrors either private or public. Public mirrors are listed at http://wiki.ros.org/Mirrors

Updates

Every year we seek to provide the same metrics so that trends can be observed. However we also look to update the metrics to include new statistics or cover new aspects that we think may be interesting trends in the future. This year we have added a new viewing metric which is the viewing statistics for https://index.ros.org . It is part of our revamp of resources to evolve the ROS infrastructure as we continue to need to scale upward.

Commentary

At a high level the growth trend continues for the ROS community.
We are now regularly providing around 8,000 GB of package downloads each month.
Last year we provided over 72,000 GB of downloads, and we’ve almost reached that point already with 67,000 GB already download at the beginning of October.

One trend that has been continuing over the last few years is that the growth of ROS in China has continued to the point that they are now the largest userbase by country.

There are two metrics in this report that appear to be different than the general trend.
The first is that wiki edits are significantly up from last year. I suspect that this might just be a sampling artifact. If a few people are particularly active for a few days, especially if there’s a refactoring of a wiki page or two this can quite easily update the numbers.

The other number that has grown a lot is the answers.ros.org users number. The site is currently under a spam attack and through the generous support of our many moderators we have successfully prevented the spammers from posting to the site. However they have broken every captcha effort that we’ve been able to throw at them and so the spammers continue to register but remain with their accounts in a probationary status. When looking at these numbers I suggest considering the users who have contributed to the site and have non-zero karma.

Related Work

I’d also like to highlight again the work of @DLu who has also put together a site for viewing longer term trends of various ROS metrics. It’s a great complement to this annual report. Please see his announcement

ROS Metrics General

As a programmer, I think there’s something inherently pleasing about collecting and organizing data. Even more so when you can do it automatically. In that vein, let me introduce my latest nights-and-weekends side project:  metrics.ros.org  [Screenshot%20from%202019-09-29%2014-04-18] The idea partially stemmed from  this Discourse thread and my previous project  ROS Answered. The core is to supercharge  the standard Metrics report and graph trends over time. Some observations: The number of regi…

And visit the site at: metrics.ros.org

ROS 2 TSC Meeting Minutes: 2019-10-17

  • Attendees
    • Southwest Research Institute, representing CCDC GVSC - Jerry Towler
    • Samsung Research America - Steve Macenski
    • ADLINK - Joe Speed
    • Amazon - Adam Duncan, Thomas Moulard, Aaron Blasdel
    • eProsima - Jaime Martin Losa
    • Toyota Research Institute - Toffee Albina
    • Bosch - Karsten Knese
    • Open Robotics - Brian Gerkey, Dirk Thomas, Tully Foote
    • Tier IV - Geoff Biggs
    • Intel - Matt Hansen
    • LG Electronics - Brian Shin
    • Microsoft - Sean Yen
    • Apex.AI - Dejan Pangercic
  • Old business
    • [Hansen] Follow up on MoveIt2 - There is some good news that Picknik has secured some funding to begin working on the port again, but there is still help needed. We at Intel are committed to contributing to the port, but would like a call to action from other TSC members to also commit some resources to helping.
      • Plan to meet and discuss at ROSCon
      • Hansen to start a discussion on Discourse looking for help.
    • [Speed] Edge AI WG status
      • Steve, Adam, Geoff, Tully, Joe wrote proposal. Will post on discourse next week to get input & solicit interest
    • [Duncan] Tooling WG status
      • Discuss later in this meeting
    • [Duncan] Development/Release framework
      • PR to REP in progress: https://github.com/ros-infrastructure/rep/pull/209
      • TSC and everyone invited to review and offer feedback
      • Elevator pitch: if a previously released package is building and testing successfully, then no developer bloom-type action should be required to automatically include it in a new “rolling” distro.
    • [Gerkey] In-person TSC informal gathering at ROSCon
      • Set for Oct 30th @ 1715-1815, location TBD (bar/lounge nearby workshop location, Joe is buying a round)
        • Gerkey to send out location and calendar invite before then
  • New business
  • Recurring business
    • Eloquent release status
      • [Thomas] API and feature freeze for core packages planned for tomorrow Oct. 18th
      • [Gerkey/Thomas] Let’s all review the Eloquent ticket
      • [Albina] TRI continues to work with OSRC on the Eloquent tasks they have on their plate
      • [Hansen] How can we flag blockers for Eloquent?
        • If you see something that you consider to be a blocker, comment on that ticket (wherever it lives) to assert that position (e.g., “This issue is a blocker for Eloquent; please escalate priority to address.”).
        • Should we collect a list of Eloquent blockers somewhere and if so, how and where?
          • Gerkey to look into this. Foote suggests working with the ROS Boss.
      • Apex.AI updates for the last month are listed here: https://github.com/ros2/ros2/issues/734#issuecomment-519425530 => Update 2019-Oct-17
      • AWS: Recent updates:
        https://github.com/ros2/ros2/issues/734#issuecomment-518482696
      • Tier IV:
        • Tier IV has contracted with a real-time embedded software specialist company to provide 3 FTEs to work on real-time and deterministic execution for ROS 2. We expect them to get up to speed over the next few months, so they will not be able to contribute to Eloquent. We will coordinate their work via the real-time WG.
        • Tier IV’s efforts to bring Debian to Tier 2 status are starting to bear fruit but there are still some catches.
          • Unable to compile any GUI tools. The reason is under investigation.
          • Unsure if we need our own Connext DDS license to do binaries and tests for those parts of the stack: Adding Debian as a Tier 2 platform
      • ADLINK: recent updates, ROS 2 E developer improvements https://github.com/ros2/ros2/issues/734#issuecomment-520542532
      • ePROSIMA
    • Working group updates
      • [Geoff] Safety
        • Working group regular participant numbers have shrunk to two
        • But we have a Plan!
        • Will focus our activities on producing sample ROS structures for common safety patterns (as discussed in previous TSC meeting).
        • A project has been acquired courtesy of Tully, where we will start producing content. It is hoped that by starting to produce content we will kick-start some discussion and further contributions from new people.
      • [Dejan] Real-time

 

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